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Chinese Characters
Chinese characters
Chinese characters
are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese. Occasionally, they are also used for writing Korean, Vietnamese and some other Asian languages. In Standard Chinese, they are called Hanzi (simplified Chinese: 汉字; traditional Chinese: 漢字, lit "Han characters").[2][3][4] They have been adapted to write a number of other Asian languages, including Korean, where they are known as Hanja
Hanja
(漢字), Japanese, where they are known as Kanji
Kanji
(漢字), Vietnamese, in a system known as Chữ Nôm, and Zhuang, in a system known as Sawndip. Collectively, they are known as CJK characters
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Kunrei-shiki Romanization
Kunrei-shiki rōmaji (訓令式ローマ字) is a Cabinet-ordered romanization system to transcribe the Japanese language
Japanese language
into the Latin alphabet. It is abbreviated as Kunrei-shiki. Its name is rendered Kunreisiki using Kunrei-shiki itself. Kunrei-shiki is sometimes known as the Monbushō system in English because it is taught in the Monbushō-approved elementary school curriculum. The ISO has standardized Kunrei-shiki, under ISO 3602. Kunrei-shiki is based on the older Nihon-shiki (Nipponsiki) system, which was modified for modern standard Japanese
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Hepburn Romanization
Hepburn romanization
Hepburn romanization
(ヘボン式ローマ字, Hebon-shiki Rōmaji, 'Hepburn-type Roman letters')[1] is a system for the romanization of Japanese, that uses the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
to write the Japanese language. It is used by most foreigners learning to spell Japanese in the Latin alphabet[2] and by the Japanese for romanizing personal names, geographical locations, and other information such as train tables, road signs, and official communications with foreign countries.[3] Largely based on English writing conventions, consonants closely correspond to the English pronunciation and vowels approximate the Italian pronunciation.[1] The Hepburn style (Hebon-shiki) was developed in the late 19th century by an international commission that was formed to develop a unified system of romanization
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Cilix Glaucata
The Chinese Character (Cilix glaucata) is a moth of the family Drepanidae.[1] It is found in Europe, Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and North Africa.[2] The wingspan is 18–22 mm. The moth flies from April to August depending on the location.wing patternThe moth has porcelain-white wings, with a series of small grey spots along the outside edge of the front wing and the inner edge has a large dark brown stain, which turns yellow and grey towards the middle of the wing. Occasionally there are silvery scales.The wingtips are rounded and not curved. If they are sitting in their resting position, they imitate bird droppings. The antennae are only slightly combed. The larvae feed on Rubus, Crataegus
Crataegus
and Prunus
Prunus
species. References[edit]^ "Chinese Character at UKmoths". Ukmoths.org.uk
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McCune–Reischauer
McCune–Reischauer
McCune–Reischauer
romanization (/məˈkuːn ˈraɪʃaʊ.ər/) is one of the two most widely used Korean language
Korean language
romanization systems. A modified version of McCune–Reischauer
McCune–Reischauer
was the official romanization system in South Korea
South Korea
until 2000, when it was replaced by the Revised Romanization of Korean
Romanization of Korean
system. A variant of McCune–Reischauer
McCune–Reischauer
is still used as the official system in North Korea.[citation needed] The system was created in 1937 by George M. McCune and Edwin O. Reischauer
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Revised Romanization Of Korean
The Revised Romanization of Korean
Romanization of Korean
(국어의 로마자 표기법; gugeoui romaja pyogibeop. op; lit. "Roman-letter notation of the national language") is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea
South Korea
proclaimed by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism to replace the older McCune–Reischauer
McCune–Reischauer
system. The new system eliminates diacritics in favor of digraphs and adheres more closely to Korean phonology than to a suggestive rendition of Korean phonetics for non-native speakers. The Revised Romanization limits itself to the ISO basic Latin alphabet, apart from limited, often optional use of the hyphen. It was developed by the National Academy of the Korean Language from 1995 and was released to the public on 7 July 2000 by South Korea's Ministry of Culture and Tourism in Proclamation No
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Replacement Character
Specials is a short Unicode
Unicode
block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 code points, five are assigned as of Unicode
Unicode
10.0:U+FFF9 INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION ANCHOR, marks start of annotated text U+FFFA INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION SEPARATOR, marks start of annotating character(s) U+FFFB INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION TERMINATOR, marks end of annotation block U+FFFC  OBJECT REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, placeholder in the text for another unspecified object, for example in a compound document. U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character U+FFFE <noncharacter-FFFE> not a character. U+FFFF <noncharacter-FFFF> not a character.FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the usual sense, but guaranteed not to be a Unicode
Unicode
character at all
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Bronze Age China
The Bronze
Bronze
Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze
Bronze
Age is the second principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze- Iron
Iron
system, as proposed in modern times by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen, for classifying and studying ancient societies. An ancient civilization is defined to be in the Bronze
Bronze
Age either by producing bronze by smelting its own copper and alloying with tin, arsenic, or other metals, or by trading for bronze from production areas elsewhere
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Unicode
Unicode
Unicode
is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems. The latest version contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts, as well as multiple symbol sets
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Mulam Language
The Mulam language Chinese: 仫佬; pinyin: Mùlǎo is a Kam–Sui language spoken mainly in Luocheng County, Hechi, northern Guangxi
Guangxi
by the Mulao people. The greatest concentrations are in Dongmen and Siba communes. Their autonym is mu6 lam1. The Mulam also call themselves kjam1, which is probably cognate with lam1 and the Dong people's autonym "Kam" (Wang & Zheng 1980). The Mulam language, like Dong, does not have voiced stop, but does have a phonemic distinction between unvoiced and voiced nasals and laterals. It has a system of eleven distinct vowels. It is a tonal language with ten tones, and 65% of its vocabulary is shared with the Zhuang and Dong languages.[citation needed] Since the Ming dynasty, Chinese characters have been utilized to read and write the Mulam language
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Spelling In Gwoyeu Romatzyh
The spelling of Gwoyeu Romatzyh
Gwoyeu Romatzyh
(GR) can be divided into its treatment of initials, finals and tones. GR uses contrasting unvoiced/voiced pairs of consonants to represent aspirated and unaspirated initials in Chinese: for example b and p represent IPA
IPA
[p] and [pʰ]. The letters j, ch and sh represent two different series of initials: the alveolo-palatal and the retroflex sounds. Although these spellings create no ambiguity in practice, readers more familiar with Pinyin should pay particular attention to them: GR ju, for example, corresponds to Pinyin
Pinyin
zhu, not ju (which is spelled jiu in GR). Many of the finals in GR are similar to those used in other romanizations. Distinctive features of GR include the use of iu for the close front rounded vowel spelled ü or simply u in Pinyin
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Zhuang Language
The Zhuang languages
Zhuang languages
(autonym: Vahcuengh, pre-1982: Vaƅcueŋƅ, Sawndip: 話僮, from vah 'language' and Cuengh 'Zhuang'; simplified Chinese: 壮语; traditional Chinese: 壯語; pinyin: Zhuàngyǔ) are any of more than a dozen Tai languages
Tai languages
spoken by the Zhuang people
Zhuang people
of southern China
China
in the province of Guangxi
Guangxi
and adjacent parts of Yunnan and Guangdong. The Zhuang languages
Zhuang languages
do not form a monophyletic linguistic unit, as northern and southern Zhuang languages
Zhuang languages
are more closely related to other Tai languages
Tai languages
than to each other
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International Phonetic Alphabet
The International
International
Phonetic Alphabet
Alphabet
(IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet
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Zhuang Languages
The Zhuang languages
Zhuang languages
(autonym: Vahcuengh, pre-1982: Vaƅcueŋƅ, Sawndip: 話僮, from vah 'language' and Cuengh 'Zhuang'; simplified Chinese: 壮语; traditional Chinese: 壯語; pinyin: Zhuàngyǔ) are any of more than a dozen Tai languages
Tai languages
spoken by the Zhuang people
Zhuang people
of southern China
China
in the province of Guangxi
Guangxi
and adjacent parts of Yunnan and Guangdong. The Zhuang languages
Zhuang languages
do not form a monophyletic linguistic unit, as northern and southern Zhuang languages
Zhuang languages
are more closely related to other Tai languages
Tai languages
than to each other
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Yale Romanization Of Cantonese
The Yale romanization of Cantonese
Cantonese
was developed by Gerard P. Kok for his and Parker Po-fei Huang's textbook Speak Cantonese
Cantonese
initially circulated in looseleaf form in 1952[1] but later published in 1958.[2] Unlike the Yale romanization of Mandarin, it is still widely used in books and dictionaries, especially for foreign learners of Cantonese. It shares some similarities with Hanyu Pinyin
Pinyin
in that unvoiced, unaspirated consonants are represented by letters traditionally used in English and most other European languages to represent voiced sounds. For example, [p] is represented as b in Yale, whereas its aspirated counterpart, [pʰ] is represented as p
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Okinawan Language
Central Okinawan, or simply the Okinawan language (沖縄口/ウチナーグチ Uchinaaguchi [ʔut͡ɕinaːɡut͡ɕi]), is a Northern Ryukyuan language spoken primarily in the southern half of the island of Okinawa, as well as in the surrounding islands of Kerama, Kumejima, Tonaki, Aguni, and a number of smaller peripheral islands.[4] Central Okinawan distinguishes itself from the speech of Northern Okinawa, which is classified independently as the Kunigami language
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