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Chinese Cultural Sphere
The "Sinosphere", or "East Asian cultural sphere", refers to a grouping of countries and regions in East Asia
East Asia
that were historically influenced by the Chinese culture. Other names for the concept include the Sinic world, the Confucian world, the Taoist world, and the Chinese cultural sphere, though the last is also used to refer particularly to the Sinophone
Sinophone
world: the areas which speak varieties of Chinese. The East Asian cultural sphere
East Asian cultural sphere
shares a Confucian ethical philosophy, Buddhism, Taoism
Taoism
and, historically, a common writing system
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Sinosphere (other)
Sinosphere
Sinosphere
typically refers to the East Asian cultural sphere, the regions that have historically been culturally influenced by China and its literary traditions. It may also refer to:James Matisoff's name for the Mainland Southeast Asia linguistic area the Sinophone
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Vietnam
Coordinates: 16°10′N 107°50′E / 16.167°N 107.833°E / 16.167; 107.833Socialist Republic
Republic
of Vietnam Cộng hòa xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam  (Vietnamese)FlagEmblemMotto: Độc lập – Tự do – Hạnh phúc "Independence – Freedom – Happiness"Anthem: Tiến Quân Ca[a] (English: "Army March")Location of  Vietnam  (green) in ASEAN  (dark grey)  –  [Legend]Capital Hanoi 21°2′N 105°51′E / 21.033°N 105.850°E / 21.033; 105.850Largest city
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Varieties Of Chinese
Chinese, also known as Sinitic,[a] is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible. The differences are similar to those within the Romance languages, with variation particularly strong in the more rugged southeast. These varieties, often called "dialects", have been classified into seven to ten groups, the largest being Mandarin (e.g. Beijing dialect), Wu (e.g. Shanghainese), Min (e.g. Hokkien), and Yue (e.g. Cantonese). Chinese varieties differ most in their phonology, and to a lesser extent in vocabulary and syntax. Southern varieties tend to have fewer initial consonants than northern and central varieties, but more often preserve the Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
final consonants. All have phonemic tones, with northern varieties tending to have fewer distinctions than southern ones
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Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
(/ˈbʊdɪzəm, ˈbuː-/)[1][2] is a religion[3][4] and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism
Buddhism
originated in Ancient India
India
sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia, whereafter it declined in India
India
during the Middle Ages. Two major extant branches of Buddhism
Buddhism
are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada
Theravada
(Pali: "The School of the Elders") and Mahayana
Mahayana
(Sanskrit: "The Great Vehicle")
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Taoism
Taoism
Taoism
(/ˈtaʊɪzəm/, also US: /ˈdaʊ-/), also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao
Tao
(Chinese: 道; pinyin: Dào; literally: "the Way", also romanized as Dao)
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Adoption Of Chinese Literary Culture
Chinese writing, culture and institutions were imported as a whole by Vietnam, Korea, Japan and the Ryukyus over an extended period. Chinese Buddhism
Buddhism
spread over East Asia between the 2nd and 5th centuries AD, followed by Confucianism
Confucianism
as these countries developed strong central governments modelled on Chinese institutions. In Vietnam and Korea, and for a shorter time in Japan and the Ryukyus, scholar-officials were selected using examinations on the Confucian classics modelled on the Chinese civil service examinations.[1] Shared familiarity with the Chinese classics and Confucian values provided a common framework for intellectuals and ruling elites across the region.[2] All of this was based on the use of Literary Chinese, which became the medium of scholarship and government across the region
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China
China, officially the People's Republic
People's Republic
of China
China
(PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia
East Asia
and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area,[k][19] depending on the source consulted. China
China
also has the most neighbor countries in the world
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Taiwan
Taiwan
Taiwan
(/ˌtaɪˈwɑːn/ ( listen)), officially the Republic of China
China
(ROC), is a state in East Asia.[15][16][17] Its neighbors include the People's Republic of China
China
(PRC) to the west, Japan
Japan
to the northeast, and the Philippines
Philippines
to the south. It is the most populous state and largest economy that is not a member of the United Nations. The island of Taiwan, formerly known as Formosa, was inhabited by aborigines before the 17th century, when Dutch and Spanish colonies opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed by the Qing dynasty, the last dynasty of China. The Qing ceded Taiwan
Taiwan
to Japan
Japan
in 1895 after the Sino-Japanese War
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North Korea
Coordinates: 40°00′N 127°00′E / 40.000°N 127.000°E / 40.000; 127.000Democratic People's Republic of Korea 조선민주주의인민공화국 Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin KonghwagukFlagEmblemAnthem: "Aegukka" Korean: 애국가, The Patriotic SongArea controlled by the North Korean state are shown in dark green; North Korean-claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green.Status Sovereign stateCapital and largest city Pyongyang 39°2′N 125°45′E / 39.033°N 125.750°E / 39.033; 125.750Official languages Korean[1]Official script Chosŏn'gŭl[2]DemonymNorth Korean KoreanGovernment Unitary one-party Juche
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South Korea
Coordinates: 36°N 128°E / 36°N 128°E / 36; 128 Republic
Republic
of Korea 대한민국 Daehan MingukFlagEmblemMotto: "홍익인간 (弘益人間)" (Korean) (de facto) "Benefit broadly in the human world / Devotion to the Welfare of Humanity"[1]Anthem:  Aegukga
Aegukga
"애국가 (愛國歌)" (Korean) (de facto) "Patriotic Song"Government Emblem대한민국정부 상징문양 (Korean) Government Emblem of South KoreaArea controlled by South Korea
Korea
is shown in dark green; South Korean-claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green.Status Sovereign stateCapital and largest city Seoul 37°33′N 126°58′E / 37.550°N 126.967°E / 37.550; 126.967Official languages Korean Korean Sign Language[2]Official script HangulEthnic groups Predominately Korean
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Japan
Coordinates: 35°N 136°E / 35°N 136°E / 35; 136Japan 日本国 Nippon-koku or Nihon-kokuFlagImperial SealAnthem: "Kimigayo" 君が代"His Imperial Majesty's Reign"[2][3] Government
Government
Seal of JapanGo-Shichi no Kiri (五七桐)Area controlled by Japan
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Chinese Character
Chinese characters
Chinese characters
are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese. Occasionally, they are also used for writing Korean, Vietnamese and some other Asian languages. In Standard Chinese, they are called Hanzi (simplified Chinese: 汉字; traditional Chinese: 漢字, lit "Han characters").[2][3][4] They have been adapted to write a number of other Asian languages, including Korean, where they are known as Hanja
Hanja
(漢字), Japanese, where they are known as Kanji
Kanji
(漢字), Vietnamese, in a system known as Chữ Nôm, and Zhuang, in a system known as Sawndip. Collectively, they are known as CJK characters
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Greater China
Greater China
Greater China
or the Greater China
Greater China
Region is a term used to refer to Mainland China,[1] Hong Kong, Macau
Macau
and Taiwan.[2] As a "phrase of the moment", the precise meaning is not entirely clear, and people may use it for only the commercial ties or only for the cultural actions
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Arnold J. Toynbee
Arnold Joseph Toynbee
Joseph Toynbee
CH (/ˈtɔɪnbi/; 14 April 1889 – 22 October 1975) was a British historian, philosopher of history, research professor of international history at the London
London
School of Economics and the University of London
London
and author of numerous books
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Yellow River
The Yellow River
River
or Huang He ( listen) is the third longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze
Yangtze
River
River
and Yenisei River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of 5,464 km (3,395 mi).[1] Originating in the Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai
Qinghai
province of Western China, it flows through nine provinces, and it empties into the Bohai Sea
Bohai Sea
near the city of Dongying in Shandong
Shandong
province. The Yellow River
River
basin has an east–west extent of about 1,900 kilometers (1,180 mi) and a north–south extent of about 1,100 km (680 mi). Its total drainage area is about 752,546 square kilometers (290,560 sq mi). Its basin was the birthplace of ancient Chinese civilization, and it was the most prosperous region in early Chinese history
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