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Chilean Civil War Of 1891
The CHILEAN CIVIL WAR OF 1891, also known as REVOLUTION OF 1891 was an armed conflict between forces supporting Congress and forces supporting the President , José Manuel Balmaceda
José Manuel Balmaceda
. The war saw a confrontation between the Chilean Army
Chilean Army
and the Chilean Navy
Chilean Navy
, which sided with the president and the congress, respectively. This conflict ended with the defeat of the Chilean Army
Chilean Army
and the presidential forces and President Balmaceda committing suicide as a consequence. In Chilean historiography the war marks the end of the Liberal Republic and the beginning of the Parliamentary Era
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Congress Of Chile
NEW MAJORITY DC (7) PS (6) PPD (6) MAS (1) New Majority\'s independents (1) CHILE VAMOS UDI (7) RN (6) Chile
Chile
Vamos\' independents (1) OUT OF PACT: Patagonian Regional Democracy (1) Amplitude (1) Independent (1) POLITICAL GROUPS GOVERNMENT (New Majority ) Christian Democratic (21) Socialist (16) Party for Democracy (15) Communist (6) Social Democrat Radical (6) Citizen Left
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War
WAR is a state of armed conflict between states or societies . It is generally characterized by extreme aggression , destruction, and mortality, using regular or irregular military forces . An absence of war is usually called "peace ". WARFARE refers to the common activities and characteristics of types of war, or of wars in general. Total war
Total war
is warfare that is not restricted to purely legitimate military targets , and can result in massive civilian or other non-combatant suffering and casualties . While some scholars see war as a universal and ancestral aspect of human nature , others argue it is a result of specific socio-cultural or ecological circumstances. The deadliest war in history, in terms of the cumulative number of deaths since its start, is World War II
World War II
, from 1939 to 1945, with 60–85 million deaths, followed by the Mongol conquests at up to 60 million
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President Of Chile
The PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF CHILE (Spanish : Presidente de la República de Chile) is the head of state and the head of government of the Republic of Chile
Chile
. The President is responsible for both government and state administration. Although its role and significance has changed over the history of Chile
Chile
, as well as its position and relations with other actors in the national political organization , it is one of the most prominent political figures. It is also considered as one of the institutions that make up the "Historic Constitution of Chile", and is essential to the country's political stability. Under the current Constitution (adopted in 1980 ), the President is elected to serve for a period of four years, with immediate re-election being prohibited. The shorter period (previously the term was six years) allows for parliamentary and presidential elections to be synchronized
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Chilean Army
The CHILEAN ARMY (Spanish : Ejército de Chile) is the land arm of the Military of Chile
Chile
. This 50,000-strong army (9,200 of which are conscripts ) is organized into six divisions, a special operations brigade and an air brigade. In recent years, and after several major reequipment programs, the Chilean Army
Army
has become one of the most technologically advanced and professional armies in America . The Chilean Army
Army
is mostly supplied with equipment from Germany
Germany
, the Netherlands
Netherlands
, Switzerland
Switzerland
, the United States
United States
, Israel
Israel
, France
France
, and Spain
Spain

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Chilean Navy
The CHILEAN NAVY (Armada de Chile) is the naval force of Chile
Chile

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Battle Of Placilla
The BATTLE OF PLACILLA was an engagement fought during the 1891 Chilean Civil War between Balmacedist and Congressional forces on 28 August 1891. The Congressist victory in the battle essentially decided the fate of the war. Congressist troops entered Santiago on August 30. President José Manuel Balmaceda committed suicide inside the Argentine embassy of Santiago in September 19. REFERENCES This article DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Battle Of Caldera Bay
The BATTLE OF CALDERA BAY, or the SINKING OF THE BLANCO ENCALADA, was an engagement fought in the port of Caldera Bay during the 1891 Chilean Civil War between Balmacedist and Congressional naval forces on 23 April 1891. It involved two Balmacedist torpedo boats , Almirante Lynch and Almirante Condell , and the Congressional armored frigate Blanco Encalada . After both torpedoes from Almirante Condell had missed, Blanco Encalada was hit by a torpedo from Almirante Lynch and sank in minutes, with the loss of 182 men. The loss of Blanco Encalada hindered the Congressional forces, but they ultimately defeated the Balmacedist forces that August. Blanco Encalada was the first ironclad warship lost to a self-propelled torpedo . The engagement prompted countries to rapidly grow both their torpedo boat and torpedo boat destroyer forces (the latter commonly referred to as destroyers )
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Battery Ship
The CENTRAL BATTERY SHIP, also known as a CENTRE BATTERY SHIP in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and as a CASEMATE SHIP in European continental navies, was a development of the (high-freeboard ) broadside ironclad of the 1860s, given a substantial boost due to the inspiration gained from the Battle of Hampton Roads
Battle of Hampton Roads
, the very first battle between ironclads fought in 1862 during the American Civil War
American Civil War
. One of the participants was the Confederate casemate ironclad CSS Virginia
CSS Virginia
, essentially a central battery ship herself, albeit a low-freeboard one. The central battery ships had their main guns concentrated in the middle of the ship in an armoured citadel . The concentration of armament amidships meant the ship could be shorter and handier than a broadside type like previous warships
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Itata Incident
American victory * Chilean ship and crew captured BELLIGERENTS United States Congressionist Junta COMMANDERS AND LEADERS W.P. McCann George Brown George Gard Unknown STRENGTH U.S. Navy U.S. Marshal Service Navy of Chile Army of Chile rebels CASUALTIES AND LOSSES None Unknown 1 ship captured 5,000 rifles seized Unknown number of Chilean soldiers captured * v * t * e 1891 Chilean Civil War * Huara * Itata Incident * Iquique Custom House * Pozo Almonte * Baltimore Crisis * Caldera Bay * Vallenar * Concón * Lo Cañas Massacre * Placilla The ITATA INCIDENT was a diplomatic affair and military incident involving the United States and Chilean insurgents during the 1891 Chilean Civil War . The incident concerned an arms shipment by the Chilean ship Itata from the United States to Chile, to assist insurgent Congressionalist forces in the war
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Battle Of Pozo Almonte
The BATTLE OF POZO ALMONTE was an engagement fought during the 1891 Chilean Civil War between Balmacedist and Congressional forces on 6 March 1891. The Congressist victory in the battle eventually lead the junta to control all of northern Chile . REFERENCES * ^ A B Encina & Castedo, pp
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Baltimore Crisis
The BALTIMORE CRISIS was a diplomatic incident that took place between Chile and the United States , after the 1891 Chilean Civil War , as a result of the growing American influence in Pacific Coast region of Latin America in the 1890s. It marked a dramatic shift in United States–Chile relations . It was triggered by the stabbing of two United States Navy sailors from USS Baltimore in front of the "True Blue Saloon" in Valparaíso on October 16, 1891. The United States government demanded an apology. Chile ended the episode when it apologized and paid a $75,000 indemnity. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 USS Baltimore incident * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 Further reading * 6 Primary sources BACKGROUNDIn 1884 Chile emerged from the War of the Pacific as a potential threat to the hegemony of the United States. The Chilean navy , then the strongest fleet in the Pacific, was able to confront American policy
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Suicide
SUICIDE is the act of intentionally causing one's own death . Risk factors include mental disorders such as depression , bipolar disorder , schizophrenia , personality disorders , and substance abuse , including alcoholism and use of benzodiazepines . Other suicides are impulsive acts due to stress such as from financial difficulties , troubles with relationships , or from bullying . Those who have previously attempted suicide are at higher risk for future attempts. Suicide prevention efforts include limiting access to methods of suicide, such as firearms , drugs, and poisons, treating mental disorders and substance misuse, proper media reporting of suicide, and improving economic conditions. Although crisis hotlines are common, there is little evidence for their effectiveness. The most commonly used method of suicide varies between countries, and is partly related to the availability of effective means
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Liberal Republic
LIBERAL REPUBLIC is a period of the History of Chile
History of Chile
that extends between 1861 and 1891. It characterized by the rise of the liberal people, after the division of the conservative party. They promulgate the main constitutional reforms that limit the power of the president and give more power to the Congress
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Colonial Chile
In Chilean historiography , COLONIAL CHILE (Spanish : la colonia) is the period from 1600 to 1810, beginning with the Destruction of the Seven Cities and ending with the onset of the Chilean War of Independence . During this time the Chilean heartland was ruled by Captaincy General of Chile . The period was characterized by a lengthy conflict between Spaniards and native Mapuches known as the Arauco War . Colonial society was divided in distinct groups including Peninsulars , Criollos , Mestizos , Indians and Black people . Relative to other Spanish colonies Chile
Chile
was a "poor and dangerous" place
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Captaincy General Of Chile
The GENERAL CAPTAINCY OF CHILE (Capitanía General de Chile) or GOBERNACIóN DE CHILE, was a territory of the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
, subordinate to the Viceroyalty of Peru
Viceroyalty of Peru
from 1541 to 1818. It comprised most of modern-day Chile
Chile
and southern parts of Argentina
Argentina
. Its capital was Santiago
Santiago
de Chile
Chile
. In 1818 it declared itself independent, becoming the Republic of Chile
Chile
. It had a number of Spanish governors over its long history and several kings
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