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Chicha
In South and Central America, chicha is a fermented (alcoholic) or non-fermented beverage usually derived from grains, maize, or fruit.[1][need quotation to verify], [2][need quotation to verify] Chicha
Chicha
includes corn beer, known as chicha de jora, and non-alcoholic beverages such as chicha morada
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Managua
Nickname(s): Novia del Xolotlán(English: The Bride of Xolotlán)[1]ManaguaCoordinates: 12°8′11″N 86°15′5″W / 12.13639°N 86.25139°W / 12.13639; -86.25139Coordinates: 12°8′11″N 86°15′5″W / 12.13639°N 86.25139°W / 12.13639; -86.25139Country  NicaraguaDepartment ManaguaMunicipality ManaguaFounded 1819Seat of the Government 1852Capital of the Nation 1852[2][3]Government • Mayor Daisy Torres • Vice Mayor Reina J
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Maltose
Maltose
Maltose
(/ˈmɔːltoʊs/[2] or /ˈmɔːltoʊz/[3]), also known as maltobiose or malt sugar, is a disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined with an α(1→4) bond. In the isomer isomaltose, the two glucose molecules are joined with an α(1→6) bond. Maltose
Maltose
is the two-unit member of the amylose homologous series, the key structural motif of starch. When beta-amylase breaks down starch, it removes two glucose units at a time, producing maltose
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Nahuatl Language
Nahuatl
Nahuatl
(English: /ˈnɑːwɑːtəl/;[4] Nahuatl pronunciation: [ˈnaːwatɬ] ( listen)[cn 1]), known historically as Aztec,[3] is a language or group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family. Varieties of Nahuatl
Nahuatl
are spoken by an estimated 1.5 million Nahua peoples, most of whom live in central Mexico. Nahuatl
Nahuatl
has been spoken in central Mexico
Mexico
since at least the seventh century CE.[5] It was the language of the Aztecs, who dominated what is now central Mexico
Mexico
during the Late Postclassic period of Mesoamerican history
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Suffix (linguistics)
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word. Common examples are case endings, which indicate the grammatical case of nouns or adjectives, and verb endings, which form the conjugation of verbs. Particularly in the study of Semitic languages, suffixes are called afformatives, as they can alter the form of the words. In Indo-European studies, a distinction is made between suffixes and endings (see Proto-Indo-European root). Suffixes can carry grammatical information or lexical information. An inflectional suffix is sometimes called a desinence[1] or a grammatical suffix[2] or ending
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Germination
Germination
Germination
is the process by which an organism grows from a seed or similar structure. The most common example of germination is the sprouting of a seedling from a seed of an angiosperm or gymnosperm. In addition, the growth of a sporeling from a spore, such as the spores of hyphae from fungal spores, is also germination
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Wort (brewing)
Wort
Wort
(/ˈwɜːrt/) is the liquid extracted from the mashing process during the brewing of beer or whisky. Wort
Wort
contains the sugars that will be fermented by the brewing yeast to produce alcohol. Production[edit]Draining wortThe first step in wort production is to make malt from dried, sprouted barley. The malt is then run through a roller mill and cracked. This cracked grain is then mashed, that is, mixed with hot water and steeped, a slow heating process that enables enzymes to convert the starch in the malt into sugars. At set intervals, most notably when the mixture has reached temperatures of 45, 62 and 73 °C (113, 144 and 163 °F),[1] the heating is briefly halted. The temperature of the mixture is usually increased to 78 °C (172 °F) for mashout
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Adjuncts
Adjuncts
Adjuncts
are unmalted grains (such as corn, rice, rye, oats, barley, and wheat[1]) or grain products used in brewing beer which supplement the main mash ingredient (such as malted barley), often with the intention of cutting costs, but sometimes to create an additional feature, such as better foam retention, flavors or nutritional value or additives. Both solid and liquid adjuncts are commonly used.Contents1 Definition 2 Types of adjuncts and adjunct products 3 Sources of starch adjuncts 4 Sugar adjuncts 5 Flavorings 6 Fruit or vegetable 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksDefinition[edit] Ingredients which are standard for certain beers, such as wheat in a wheat beer, may be termed adjuncts when used in beers which could be made without them — such as adding wheat to a pale ale for the purpose of creating a lasting head. The sense here is that the ingredient is additional and strictly unnecessary, though it may be beneficial and attractive
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Chancaca
Chancaca
Chancaca
is a typical Peruvian, Bolivian, and Chilean warm, sweet sauce made of raw unrefined sugar from sugarcane. It is often flavored with orange peel and cinnamon, and is consumed on sopaipillas or picarones. Chancaca
Chancaca
is also a synonym for panela, the unrefined sugar used to make chancaca syrup.[1] In Colombia, chancacas are a traditional coconut candy. See also[edit]List of dessert saucesReferences[edit]^ "Chancaca". Retrieved 27 March 2013. v t e Dessert
Dessert
saucesList of dessert saucesBanana sauce Blueberry sauce Brandy butter Caramel
Caramel
sauce Chancaca Chocolate syrup Coulis Crème anglaise Custard Fruit curd Hard sauce Magic Shell / Ice Magic Rumtopf Slatko Wet walnuts Whipped toppingThis Chilean cuisine–related article is a stub. You can help by expanding it.v t eThis food ingredient–related article is a stub
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Catalysis
Catalysis
Catalysis
(/kəˈtælɪsɪs/) is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalyst[1] (/ˈkætəlɪst/), which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly. Often only tiny amounts of catalyst are required in principle.[2] In general, the reactions occur faster with a catalyst because they require less activation energy. In catalyzed mechanisms, the catalyst usually reacts to form a temporary intermediate which then regenerates the original catalyst in a cyclic process. Catalysts may be classified as either homogeneous or heterogeneous. A homogeneous catalyst is one whose molecules are dispersed in the same phase (usually gaseous or liquid) as the reactant molecules. A heterogeneous catalyst is one whose molecules are not in the same phase as the reactants, which are typically gases or liquids that are adsorbed onto the surface of the solid catalyst
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Starch
Starch
Starch
or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds. This polysaccharide is produced by most green plants as energy storage. It is the most common carbohydrate in human diets and is contained in large amounts in staple foods like potatoes, wheat, maize (corn), rice, and cassava. Pure starch is a white, tasteless and odorless powder that is insoluble in cold water or alcohol. It consists of two types of molecules: the linear and helical amylose and the branched amylopectin. Depending on the plant, starch generally contains 20 to 25% amylose and 75 to 80% amylopectin by weight.[4] Glycogen, the glucose store of animals, is a more highly branched version of amylopectin. In industry, starch is converted into sugars, for example by malting, and fermented to produce ethanol in the manufacture of beer, whisky and biofuel. It is processed to produce many of the sugars used in processed foods
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Sake
Sake
Sake
(Japanese: 酒, Japanese pronunciation: [Sake]), also spelled saké, (IPA: /ˈsɑːkeɪ/ SAH-kay or American English /ˈsɑːki/ SAH-kee)[1][2] also referred to as a Japanese rice wine, is an alcoholic beverage made by fermenting rice that has been polished to remove the bran. Unlike wine, in which alcohol is produced by fermenting sugar that is naturally present in fruit, typically grapes, sake is produced by a brewing process more akin to that of beer, where starch is converted into sugars which ferment into alcohol. The brewing process for sake differs from the process for beer in that, for beer, the conversion from starch to sugar and from sugar to alcohol occurs in two distinct steps. Like other rice wines, when sake is brewed, these conversions occur simultaneously. Furthermore, the alcohol content differs between sake, wine, and beer
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Kuna People
The Guna, known as Kuna prior to an orthographic reform in 2010[2], and historically as Cuna, are an indigenous people of Panama
Panama
and Colombia. The Congreso General de la Nación Gunadule since 2010 promotes the spelling Guna. In the Kuna language, they call themselves Dule or Tule, meaning "people", and the name of the language in Kuna is Dulegaya, literally "people-mouth".[3] Contents1 Location 2 Political and social organization 3 Flag 4 Culture 5 Economy 6 History 7 Language 8 Health 9 Albinism 10 References 11 Further readingLocation[edit] The Guna live in three politically autonomous comarcas or reservations in Panama, and in a few small villages in Colombia. There are also communities of Kuna people
Kuna people
in Panama
Panama
City, Colón, and other cities. The most Gunas live on small islands off the coast of the comarca of Kuna Yala
Kuna Yala
known as the San Blas Islands
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Inca Empire
The Inca Empire
Empire
(Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, lit. "The Four Regions"[2]), also known as the Incan Empire
Empire
and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America,[3] and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century.[4] Its political and administrative structure "was the most sophisticated found among native peoples" in the Americas.[5] The administrative, political and military center of the empire was located in Cusco
Cusco
in modern-day Peru. The Inca civilization
Inca civilization
arose from the highlands of Peru
Peru
sometime in the early 13th century. Its last stronghold was conquered by the Spanish in 1572. From 1438 to 1533, the Incas incorporated a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean Mountains, using conquest and peaceful assimilation, among other methods
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Bolivia
Coordinates: 16°42′43″S 64°39′58″W / 16.712°S 64.666°W / -16.712; -64.666Plurinational State of BoliviaEstado Plurinacional de Bolivia  (Spanish) Tetã Hetãvoregua Volívia  (Guaraní) Buliwya Mamallaqta  (Quechua) Wuliwya Suyu  (Aymara)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "La Unión es la Fuerza" (Spanish) "Unity is Strength"[1]Anthem: Himno Nacional de Bolivia  (Spanish)Location of  Bolivia  (dark green) in South America  (grey)Capital Sucre
Sucre
[1]Largest city San
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Peru
Coordinates: 10°S 76°W / 10°S 76°W / -10; -76 Republic
Republic
of Peru República del Perú  (Spanish)[a]FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Firme y feliz por la unión" (Spanish) "Firm and Happy for the Union"Anthem: "Himno Nacional del Perú"  (Spanish) "National Anthem of Peru"National SealGran Sello del Estado  (Spanish) Great Seal of the StateLocation of  Peru  (dark green) in South America  (grey)Capital and largest city Lima 12°2.6′S 77°1.7′W / 12.0433°S 77.0283°W / -12.0433; -77.0283<
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