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Chicha
In South and Central America, CHICHA is a fermented or non-fermented beverage usually derived from maize. Chicha
Chicha
includes corn beer known as chicha de jora and non-alcoholic beverages such as chicha morada . Archaeobotanists have found evidence for chicha made from maize, the fruit of Schinus molle and Prosopis pods. Chichas can also be made from quinoa , kañiwa , peanut, manioc root (also called yuca or cassava), palm fruit, potato, Oxalis tuberosa , chañar or various other fruits. While chicha is most commonly associated with maize, the word is used in the Andes for almost any homemade fermented drink, and many unfermented drinks. Many different maize landraces , grains or fruits have been and can be used to make chicha in different regions
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Wort (brewing)
WORT (/ˈwɜːrt/ ) is the liquid extracted from the mashing process during the brewing of beer or whisky . Wort contains the sugars that will be fermented by the brewing yeast to produce alcohol . PRODUCTION Draining wort The first step in wort production is to make malt from dried, sprouted barley . The malt is then run through a roller mill and cracked. This cracked grain is then mashed , that is, mixed with hot water and steeped , a slow heating process that enables enzymes to convert the starch in the malt into sugars. At set intervals, most notably when the mixture has reached temperatures of 45, 62 and 73 °C (113, 144 and 163 °F), the heating is briefly halted. The temperature of the mixture is usually increased to 78 °C (172 °F) for mashout . Lautering is the next step, which means the sugar-extracted grist or solids remaining in the mash are separated from the liquid wort
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Adjuncts
ADJUNCTS are unmalted grains (such as corn, rice, rye, oats, barley, and wheat ) or grain products used in brewing beer which supplement the main mash ingredient (such as malted barley ), often with the intention of cutting costs, but sometimes to create an additional feature, such as better foam retention, flavours or nutritional value or additives. Both solid and liquid adjuncts are commonly used. CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Types of adjuncts and adjunct products * 3 Sources of starch adjuncts * 4 Sugar adjuncts * 5 Flavourings * 6 Fruit or vegetable * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links DEFINITIONIngredients which are standard for certain beers, such as wheat in a wheat beer , may be termed adjuncts when used in beers which could be made without them — such as adding wheat to a pale ale for the purpose of creating a lasting head
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Chancaca
CHANCACA is a typical Peruvian , Bolivian , and Chilean warm, sweet sauce made of raw unrefined sugar from sugarcane. It is often flavored with orange peel and cinnamon , and is consumed on sopaipillas or picarones . Chancaca is also a synonym for panela , the unrefined sugar used to make chancaca syrup. In Colombia, chancacas are a traditional coconut candy. SEE ALSO * List of dessert sauces REFERENCES * ^ "Chancaca". Retrieved 27 March 2013. * v * t * e Dessert sauces List of dessert sauces * Banana sauce * Blueberry sauce * Brandy butter * Caramel sauce * Chancaca * Chocolate syrup * Coulis * Crème anglaise * Custard * Fruit curd * Hard sauce * Magic Shell * Rumtopf * Slatko * Wet walnuts * Whipped topping This Chilean cuisine –related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e This food ingredient–related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Catalysis
CATALYSIS (/kəˈtælᵻsᵻs/ ) is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a CATALYST (/ˈkætəlᵻst/ ), which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly. Often only tiny amounts of catalyst are required in principle. In general, reactions occur faster with a catalyst because they require less activation energy . In catalyzed mechanisms, the catalyst usually reacts to form a temporary intermediate which then regenerates the original catalyst in a cyclic process. Catalysts may be classified as either homogeneous or heterogeneous. A homogeneous catalyst is one whose molecules are dispersed in the same phase (usually gaseous or liquid) as the reactant molecules. A heterogeneous catalyst is one whose molecules are not in the same phase as the reactants, which are typically gases or liquids that are adsorbed onto the surface of the solid catalyst
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Germination
GERMINATION is the process by which an organism grows from a seed or similar structure. The most common example of germination is the sprouting of a seedling from a seed of an angiosperm or gymnosperm . In addition, the growth of a sporeling from a spore , such as the spores of hyphae from fungal spores, is also germination. Thus, in a general sense, germination can be thought of as anything expanding into greater being from a small existence or germ
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Suffix (linguistics)
In linguistics , a SUFFIX (also sometimes termed POSTFIX or ENDING) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word. Common examples are case endings , which indicate the grammatical case of nouns or adjectives, and verb endings, which form the conjugation of verbs. Particularly in the study of Semitic languages , suffixes are called AFFORMATIVES, as they can alter the form of the words. In Indo-European studies , a distinction is made between suffixes and endings (see Proto-Indo-European root ). Suffixes can carry grammatical information or lexical information. An inflectional suffix is sometimes called a DESINENCE or a GRAMMATICAL SUFFIX . Inflection changes the grammatical properties of a word within its syntactic category Derivational suffixes can be divided into two categories: class-changing derivation and class-maintaining derivation
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Kuna People
The KUNA, following orthographic reform in 2010 also known as GUNA, and historically as CUNA, are an indigenous people of Panama
Panama
and Colombia
Colombia
. The Congreso General de la Nación Gunadule since 2010 promotes the spelling GUNA. In the Kuna language
Kuna language
, they call themselves Dule or Tule, meaning "people", and the name of the language in Kuna is Dulegaya, literally "people-mouth"
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Real Academia Española
The REAL ACADEMIA ESPAñOLA (English: Royal Spanish Academy), generally abbreviated as RAE, is the official royal institution responsible for overseeing the Spanish language
Spanish language
. It is based in Madrid
Madrid
, Spain, but is affiliated with national language academies in twenty-one other hispanophone (Spanish-speaking) nations through the Association of Spanish Language Academies
Association of Spanish Language Academies
. The RAE's emblem is a fiery crucible, and its motto is "Limpia, fija y da esplendor" (" cleans, fixes, and casts splendour"). The RAE dedicates itself to language planning by applying linguistic prescription aimed at promoting linguistic unity within and between the various territories, to ensure a common standard in accordance with Article 1 of its founding charter: "..
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Nahuatl Language
NAHUATL (English: /ˈnɑːwɑːtəl/ ; Nahuatl
Nahuatl
pronunciation: ( listen ) ), known historically as AZTEC, is a language or group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family . Varieties of Nahuatl are spoken by an estimated 1.5 million Nahua peoples
Nahua peoples
, most of whom live in central Mexico
Mexico
. All Nahuan languages
Nahuan languages
are indigenous to Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
. Nahuatl
Nahuatl
has been spoken in central Mexico
Mexico
since at least the seventh century CE. It was the language of the Aztecs who dominated what is now central Mexico
Mexico
during the Late Postclassic period of Mesoamerican history
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Starch
STARCH or AMYLUM is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds . This polysaccharide is produced by most green plants as energy storage. It is the most common carbohydrate in human diets and is contained in large amounts in staple foods like potatoes , wheat , maize (corn), rice , and cassava . Pure starch is a white, tasteless and odorless powder that is insoluble in cold water or alcohol. It consists of two types of molecules: the linear and helical amylose and the branched amylopectin . Depending on the plant, starch generally contains 20 to 25% amylose and 75 to 80% amylopectin by weight. Glycogen
Glycogen
, the glucose store of animals, is a more highly branched version of amylopectin. In industry, starch is converted into sugars, for example by malting , and fermented to produce ethanol in the manufacture of beer , whisky and biofuel
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Maltose
MALTOSE (/ˈmɔːltoʊs/ or /ˈmɔːltoʊz/ ), also known as MALTOBIOSE or MALT SUGAR, is a disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined with an α(1→4) bond , formed from a condensation reaction . The isomer isomaltose has two glucose molecules linked through an α(1→6) bond. Maltose
Maltose
is the second member of an important biochemical series of glucose chains. Maltose
Maltose
is the disaccharide produced when amylase breaks down starch . It is found in germinating seeds as they break down their starch stores to use for food, which is why it was named after malt . It is also produced when glucose is caramelized . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Structure and nomenclature * 3 Properties * 4 Intolerance * 5 Sources and absorption * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORY Maltose
Maltose
was discovered by Irish chemist and brewer Cornelius O\'Sullivan in 1872
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Amazon Basin
The AMAZON BASIN is the part of South America
South America
drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. The Amazon drainage basin covers an area of about 7,500,000 km2 (2,900,000 sq mi), or roughly 40 percent of the South American continent. It is located in the countries of Bolivia
Bolivia
, Brazil
Brazil
, Colombia
Colombia
, Ecuador
Ecuador
, Guyana
Guyana
, Peru
Peru
, Suriname
Suriname
and Venezuela
Venezuela
. Most of the basin is covered by the Amazon Rainforest
Amazon Rainforest
, also known as Amazonia. With a 5,500,000 km2 (2,100,000 sq mi) area of dense tropical forest , this is the largest rainforest in the world
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Saliva
SALIVA is a watery substance formed in the mouths of animals , secreted by the salivary glands . Human saliva comprises 99.5% water , plus electrolytes , mucus , white blood cells , epithelial cells (which can be used to extract DNA
DNA
), glycoproteins , enzymes (such as amylase and lipase ), antimicrobial agents such as secretory IgA
IgA
and lysozyme . The enzymes found in saliva are essential in beginning the process of digestion of dietary starches and fats. These enzymes also play a role in breaking down food particles entrapped within dental crevices, thus protecting teeth from bacterial decay. Furthermore, saliva serves a lubricative function, wetting food and permitting the initiation of swallowing , and protecting the mucosal surfaces of the oral cavity from desiccation . Various animal species have special uses for saliva that go beyond pre-digestion
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Zona Sur
The ZONA SUR (Southern Zone) is one of the five natural regions on which CORFO divided continental Chile
Chile
in 1950. Its northern border is formed by the Bío-Bío River , the limit with the Central Chile Zone. By west with the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
, by the east with the Andean mountains and Argentina
Argentina
. Its southern border is the Chacao Channel , beyond it lies the Austral Zone . While Chiloé Archipelago
Chiloé Archipelago
belongs geographically to Zona Austral in terms of culture and history it lies closer to Zona Sur
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Coca Sek
COCA SEK is a carbonated beverage that the Páez people of south-western Colombia began selling in December 2005. The drink is based on coca leaves, which native Colombian peoples have been consuming for centuries. The drink is cider -colored and smells like tea . Its taste is described as a mixture of lemonade and ginger ale . In May 2007, Colombia started to remove Coca Sek forcibly from supermarket shelves, although it's still possible to find it in health food stores . REFERENCES * ^ Brodzinsky, Sibylla. "Colombia\'s Indians bank on coca drink becoming the real thing", The Guardian , 14 December 2005. Retrieved 26 June 2013. * ^ Coca-Cola Vs Coca Sek in Colombia - By SERGIO DE LEON, May 10, 2007, Associated Press This soft drink –related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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