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Cheyenne Language
The Cheyenne language
Cheyenne language
(Tsėhésenėstsestȯtse), or Tsisinstsistots, is the Native American language spoken by the Cheyenne people, predominantly in present-day Montana
Montana
and Oklahoma, in the United States. It is part of the Algonquian language family. Like all other Algonquian languages, it has complex agglutinative morphology
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America Flag Coat of arms Motto: "In God
God
We Trust"[1][a] .mw-parser-outpu
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Open Front Unrounded Vowel
The open front unrounded vowel, or low front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. It is one of the eight primary cardinal vowels, not directly intended to correspond to a vowel sound of a specific language but rather to serve as a fundamental reference point in a phonetic measuring system.[2] The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
(IPA) that represents this sound is ⟨a⟩, and in the IPA vowel chart it is positioned at the lower-left corner
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Rising Tone
A tone contour, or contour tone, is a tone in a tonal language which shifts from one pitch to another over the course of the syllable or word. Tone contours are especially common in East and Southeast Asia, but occur elsewhere, such as the Kru languages
Kru languages
of Liberia and the Ju languages of Namibia.Contents1 Contours 2 Transcription 3 See also 4 NotesContours[edit]Chart (which is said to be invented by a Chinese linguist Yuen Ren Chao) illustrating the contours four tones in Standard ChineseWhen the pitch descends, the contour is called a falling tone; when it ascends, a rising tone; when it descends and then returns, a dipping or falling-rising tone; and when it ascends and then returns, it is called a peaking or rising-falling tone. A tone in a contour-tone language which remains at approximately an even pitch is called a level tone
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Phonemic
A phoneme (/ˈfoʊniːm/) is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language. For example, in most dialects of English, the sound patterns /θʌm/ (thumb) and /dʌm/ (dumb) are two separate words distinguished by the substitution of one phoneme, /θ/, for another phoneme, /d/. (Two words like this that differ in meaning through a contrast of a single phoneme form what is called a minimal pair). In many other languages these would be interpreted as exactly the same set of phonemes (i.e. /θ/ and /d/ would be considered the same). In linguistics, phonemes (usually established by the use of minimal pairs, such as kill vs kiss or pat vs bat) are written between slashes, e.g. /p/
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Allophone
In phonology, an allophone (/ˈæləfoʊn/; from the Greek: ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds (or phones) or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.[1] For example, [pʰ] (as in pin) and [p] (as in spin which is less aspirated) are allophones for the phoneme /p/ in the English language. The specific allophone selected in a given situation is often predictable from the phonetic context (such allophones are called positional variants), but sometimes allophones occur in free variation. Replacing a sound by another allophone of the same phoneme will usually not change the meaning of a word, although sometimes the result may sound non-native or even unintelligible
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Front Vowel
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the tongue is positioned as far in front as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant. Front vowels are sometimes also called bright vowels because they are perceived as sounding brighter than the back vowels.[1] Near-front vowels are essentially a type of front vowels; no language is known to contrast front and near-front vowels based on frontness alone. Rounded front vowels are typically centralized, that is, near-front in their articulation
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Back Vowel
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages. The defining characteristic of a back vowel is that the tongue is positioned as far back as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Back vowels are sometimes also called dark vowels because they are perceived as sounding darker than the front vowels.[1] Near-back vowels are essentially a type of back vowels; no language is known to contrast back and near-back vowels based on backness alone.Contents1 Articulation 2 Partial list 3 See also 4 ReferencesArticulation[edit] In their articulation, back vowels do not form a single category, but may be either raised vowels such as [u] or retracted vowels such as [ɑ].[2] Unrounded back vowels are typically centralized, that is, near-back in their articulation
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Close-mid Front Unrounded Vowel
The close-mid front unrounded vowel, or high-mid front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
that represents this sound is ⟨e⟩. For the close-mid (near-)front rounded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ɪ⟩ or ⟨i⟩, see near-close near-front unrounded vowel
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Close-mid Back Rounded Vowel
The close-mid back rounded vowel, or high-mid back rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
that represents this sound is ⟨o⟩. For the close-mid (near-)back rounded vowel that is usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ʊ⟩ or ⟨u⟩, see near-close near-back rounded vowel. If the usual symbol is ⟨o⟩, the vowel is listed here.Contents1 Close-mid back protruded vowel1.1 Features 1.2 Occurrence2 Close-mid back compressed vowel2.1 Features 2.2 Occurrence3 References 4 BibliographyClose-mid back protruded vowel[edit] The close-mid back protruded vowel is the most common variant of the close-mid back rounded vowel. It is typically transcribed in IPA simply as ⟨o⟩, and that is the convention used in this article
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Underlying Representation
In some models of phonology as well as morphophonology in the field of linguistics, the underlying representation (UR) or underlying form (UF) of a word or morpheme is the abstract form that a word or morpheme is postulated to have before any phonological rules have applied to it.[1][2] By contrast, a surface representation is the phonetic representation of the word or sound. The concept of an underlying representation is central to generative grammar.[3] If more phonological rules apply to the same underlying form, they can apply wholly independently of each other or in a feeding or counterbleeding order. The underlying representation of a morpheme is considered to be invariable across related forms (except in cases of suppletion), despite alternations among various allophones on the surface. Examples[edit] In many cases, the underlying form is simply the phonemic form
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Chief Dull Knife College
Chief Dull Knife College
Chief Dull Knife College
(originally Dull Knife Memorial College) is a small, open-admission, Native American tribal community college and land grant institution. Located on the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, in the city of Lame Deer, it has a current enrollment of about 141 students. On average, more than half of its graduates move on to four-year colleges. The college has one main building which houses administration, faculty offices, cafeteria facilities, bookstore, a learning center and sufficient classroom space to serve 300 students. Specialized laboratory facilities include a science laboratory, two computing labs, and a distance learning center and welding laboratory
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Affricate
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal). It is often difficult to decide if a stop and fricative form a single phoneme or a consonant pair.[1] English has two affricate phonemes, /t͡ʃ/ and /d͡ʒ/, often spelled ch and j, respectively.Contents1 Examples 2 Notation 3 Affricates vs
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Morpheme
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language. In other words, it is the smallest meaningful unit of a language. The linguistics field of study dedicated to morphemes is called morphology. A morpheme is not identical to a word, and the principal difference between the two is that a morpheme may or may not stand alone, whereas a word, by definition, is freestanding. When a morpheme stands by itself, it is considered as a root because it has a meaning of its own (e.g. the morpheme cat) and when it depends on another morpheme to express an idea, it is an affix because it has a grammatical function (e.g. the –s in cats to indicate that it is plural).[1] Every word comprises one or more morphemes.Contents1 Classification of morphemes1.1 Free and bound morphemes1.1.1 Classification of bound morphemes1.1.1.1 Derivational morphemes 1.1.1.2 Inflectional morphemes1.2 Allomorphs 1.3 Zero morphemes/null morphemes 1.4 Content vs
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Bilabial Consonant
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.Contents1 Transcription 2 See also 3 References3.1 Notes 3.2 General referencesTranscription[edit] The bilabial consonants identified by the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) are:IPA Description ExampleLanguage Orthography IPA Meaningbilabial nasal English man [mæn]voiceless bilabial stop English spin [spɪn]voiced bilabial stop English bed [bɛd]voiceless bilabial fricative Japanese 富士山 (fujisan) [ɸuʑisaɴ] Mount Fujivoiced bilabial fricative Ewe ɛʋɛ [ɛ̀βɛ̀] Ewebilabial approximant Spanish lobo [loβ̞o] wolfbilabial trill Nias simbi [siʙi] lower jawbilabial ejective Adyghe пӀэ [pʼa] meatʘ̬ ʘ̃ ʘ̥̃ʰ ʘ̃ˀ bilabial click release (many distinct consonants) Nǁng ʘoe [ʘoe] meatOwere Igbo has a six-way contrast among bilabial stops: [p pʰ ɓ̥ b b̤ ɓ]
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