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Chera
Maritime contacts Sangam period Tamilakam Cheras Ays Ezhil Malai Confluence of religions Venad
Venad
- Kingdom of Quilon Calicut Kolattunadu Cochin Minor principalities Portuguese period Dutch period Rise of Travancore Mysorean interlude British Period Battle of Quilon Communism in Kerala Unification of KeralaOther topics Geography Economy Architecture Fortsv t ePart of a series onHistory of Tamil NaduMainTamiḻakam Chronology of Tamil history List of Tamil monarchsSangam periodSources Three Crow
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Marthanda Varma
Marthanda Varma
Marthanda Varma
(born Anizham Thirunal Marthanda Varma; 1705 – 7 July 1758) was ruler of the southern Indian state of Travancore
Travancore
from 1729 until his death in 1758. He is most celebrated for crushing the Dutch expansionist designs at the Battle of Colachel
Battle of Colachel
in 1741. Marthanda Varma, then adopted a European mode of martial discipline and expanded his domain to encompass what became the modern state of Travancore.[2] Marthanda Varma
Marthanda Varma
built a substantial standing army of about 50,000, reduced the power of the Nair
Nair
aristocracy (on which rulers of Kerala had earlier been dependent militarily), and fortified the northern limits of his kingdom at the so-called Travancore
Travancore
Lines
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English Rule In Kerala
English
English
usually refers to: English
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Communism In Kerala
Communism
Communism
in Kerala
Kerala
refers to the strong presence of communist ideas in the Indian state of Kerala. In addition to Kerala, the Indian states of West Bengal
West Bengal
and Tripura
Tripura
have had democratically elected multiple Marxist governments, and change takes place in the government by regular multiparty electoral process. Communism
Communism
of Kerala
Kerala
has provided Indian communist stalwarts such as E. M. S. Namboodiripad
E. M. S. Namboodiripad
and A. K
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Shaivism
Shiva
Shiva
- ShaktiSadasiva Rudra Bhairava Parvati Durga KaliGanesha Murugan OthersScriptures and textsAgamas and TantrasVedas SvetasvataraTirumurai Shivasutras VachanasPhilosophyThree ComponentsPati Pashu PasamThree bondagesAnava Karma Maya 36 Tattvas YogaPracticesVibhuti Rudraksha Panchakshara Bilva Maha Shivaratri Yamas-Niyamas Guru-Linga-JangamSchoolsAdi MargamPashupata Kalamukha Kapalika
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Vaishnavism
ArtsBharatanatyam Kathak Kathakali Kuchipudi Manipuri Mohiniyattam Odissi Sattriya Bhagavata
Bhagavata
Mela Yakshagana Dandiya Raas Carnatic musicRites of passageGarbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha AntyeshtiAshrama DharmaAshrama: Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha SannyasaFestivalsDiwali Holi Shivaratri Navaratri
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Monarchy
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic), to partial and restricted (constitutional monarchy), to completely autocratic (absolute monarchy). Traditionally the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In contrast, elective monarchies require the monarch to be elected.[1] Both types have further variations as there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy. For example, in some[which?] elected monarchies only pedigrees are taken into account for eligibility of the next ruler, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc
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Mysorean Invasion Of Kerala
British East India Company Zamorin
Zamorin
of Calicut Raja of TravancoreThe Mysorean invasion of Kerala
Kerala
(1766 –1792) was the military invasion of Malabar (northern Kerala), including the territories of the Zamorin
Zamorin
of Calicut, by the Muslim
Muslim
de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore
Mysore
Hyder Ali. After completing the occupation, Kingdom of Cochin, situated south of Malabar, was made a tributary state of Mysore. The major reason for the occupation of Malabar was the desire to have access to the Indian Ocean ports
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India
India, officially the Republic
Republic
of India
India
(IAST: Bhārat Gaṇarājya),[e] is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan
Pakistan
to the west;[f] China, Nepal, and Bhutan
Bhutan
to the northeast; and Myanmar
Myanmar
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India
India
is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and the Maldives
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Geography Of Kerala
Kerala
Kerala
(38,863 km²; 1.18% of India’s landmass) is situated between the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
to the west and the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
to the east. Kerala’s coast runs some 580 km in length, while the state itself varies between 35–120 km in width. Geographically, Kerala
Kerala
roughly divides into three climatically distinct regions. These include the eastern highlands (rugged and cool mountainous terrain), the central midlands (rolling hills), and the western lowlands (coastal plains). Located at the extreme southern tip of the Indian subcontinent, Kerala
Kerala
lies near the center of the Indian tectonic plate (the Indian Plate); as such most of the state (notwithstanding isolated regions) is subject to comparatively little seismic or volcanic activity
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Indian Ocean Trade
Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
Trade has been a key factor in East–West exchanges throughout history. Long distance trade in dhows and sailboats made it a dynamic zone of interaction between peoples, cultures, and civilizations stretching from Java
Java
in the East to Zanzibar
Zanzibar
and Mombasa in the West. Cities and states on the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
rim were Janus-faced
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Dutch In Kerala
Dutch Malabar, also known by the name of its main settlement Cochin, was the title of a commandment of the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
on the Malabar Coast
Malabar Coast
between 1661 and 1795, and is part of what is today collectively referred to as Dutch India. Dutch presence in the region started with the capture of Portuguese Quilon, and ended with the occupation of Malabar by the British in 1795.[1] They possessed military outposts in 11 locations: Alleppey, Ayacotta, Chendamangalam, Pappinivattom, Ponnani, Pallipuram, Cranganore (from 15 January 1662), Chetwai, Cannanore (from 15 February 1663), Cochin (7 January 1663 – 1795), and Quilon (29 December 1658 – 14 April 1659 and from 24 December 1661). The Kingdom of Cochin
Kingdom of Cochin
was an ally of the Dutch East India Company
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Portuguese India
The State of India
India
(Portuguese: Estado da Índia), also referred as the Portuguese State of India
India
(Estado Português da Índia, EPI) or simply Portuguese India
India
(Índia Portuguesa), was a state of the Portuguese Overseas Empire, founded six years after the discovery of a sea route between Portugal
Portugal
and the Indian Subcontinent
Indian Subcontinent
to serve as the governing body of a string of Portuguese fortresses and colonies overseas. The first viceroy, Francisco de Almeida, established his headquarters in Cochin
Cochin
(Cochim, Kochi). Subsequent Portuguese governors were not always of viceroy rank
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Tamil Language
 Sri Lanka  Singapore  India:Tamil Nadu[3] Puducherry[4] Andaman & Nicobar Islands[5]Recognised minority language in Malaysia[6]  Mauritius[7]  South Africa[8]Language codesISO 639-1 taISO 639-2 tamISO 639-3 Variously: tam – Modern Tamil oty – Old Tamil ptq – Pattapu BhashaiLinguist Listoty Old TamilGlottolog tamil1289  Modern Tamil[9] oldt1248  Old Tamil[10]Linguasphere 49-EBE-aThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.This article contains Indic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks or boxes, misplaced vowels or missing conjuncts instead of Indic text.Tamil is written in a non-Latin script
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Battle Of Quilon
The Battle of Quilon
Quilon
(or Battle of Kollam) was fought on the 15 January 1809 at Cantonment Maidan
Cantonment Maidan
in Quilon, an important port city and business hub on the south west coat of India
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Naming Conventions Of Ancient Tamil Country
Naming conventions of the Tamilakam
Tamilakam
in the Sangam literature
Sangam literature
have been one of the foremost concerns of Tamilology. The Surnames of the Caṅkam Age: Literary & Tribal, published in 1968 sought to offer one of the earliest treatments in this area.Contents1 Background 2 Tolkappiyam classifications 3 Wilden classifications 4 Tantaipeyar 5 Fives parts of a name5.1 Dynastic name 5.2 Titles6 See also 7 References7.1 BibliographyBackground[edit] The Cankam literature is thematically divided into akam and puram. The poets worked under a convention of anonymity, not exposing the names of the heroes, heroines and friends in their poems, particularly in the former, in order to underline the universality of the feelings expressed in their poetry.[1] Tolkappiyam classifications[edit] The Tolkāppiyam identifies ten categories of names
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