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Chemical Polarity
In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment. Polar molecules must contain polar bonds due to a difference in electronegativity between the bonded atoms. A polar molecule with two or more polar bonds must have a geometry which is asymmetric in at least one direction, so that the bond dipoles do not cancel each other. Polar molecules interact through dipole–dipole intermolecular forces and hydrogen bonds
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Partial Charges
A partial charge is a non-integer charge value when measured in elementary charge units. Partial charge is more commonly called net atomic charge. It is represented by the Greek lowercase letter δ, namely δ− or δ+. Partial charges are created due to the asymmetric distribution of electrons in chemical bonds. For example, in a polar covalent bond like HCl, the shared electron oscillates between the bonded atoms. The resulting partial charges are a property only of zones within the distribution, and not the assemblage as a whole. For example, chemists often choose to look at a small space surrounding the nucleus of an atom: When an electrically neutral atom bonds chemically to another neutral atom that is more electronegative, its electrons are partially drawn away
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Ozone
Ozone
Ozone
/ˈoʊzoʊn/, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula O 3. It is a pale blue gas with a distinctively pungent smell. It is an allotrope of oxygen that is much less stable than the diatomic allotrope O 2, breaking down in the lower atmosphere to O 2 or dioxygen. Ozone
Ozone
is formed from dioxygen by the action of ultraviolet light and also atmospheric electrical discharges, and is present in very low concentrations throughout the Earth's atmosphere (stratosphere). Its concentration is highest in the ozone layer region of the atmosphere, which absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Ozone's odour is sharp, reminiscent of chlorine, and detectable by many people at concentrations of as little as 6993100000000000000♠100 ppb in air. Ozone's O3 structure was determined in 1865. The molecule was later proven to have a bent structure and to be diamagnetic
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Fundamental Charge
The elementary charge, usually denoted as e or sometimes q, is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the magnitude of the electric charge carried by a single electron, which has charge −e.[2] This elementary charge is a fundamental physical constant. To avoid confusion over its sign, e is sometimes called the elementary positive charge. This charge has a measured value of approximately 6981160217662079999♠1.6021766208(98)×10−19 coulombs,[1] and after the planned redefinition of SI base units in 2018-2019, its value will be exactly 1.602176634×10−19C by definition of the Coulomb
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Hydrogen Bond
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons. Hydrogen
Hydrogen
bonds can occur between molecules (intermolecular) or within different parts of a single molecule (intramolecular).[1] Depending on the nature of the donor and acceptor atoms which constitute the bond, their geometry, and environment, the energy of a hydrogen bond can vary between 1 and 40 kcal/mol.[2] This makes them somewhat stronger than a van der Waals interaction, and weaker than fully covalent or ionic bonds
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Delta (letter)
Delta (uppercase Δ, lowercase δ or 𝛿; Greek: δέλτα délta, [ˈðelta][1]) is the fourth letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals
Greek numerals
it has a value of 4. It was derived from the Phoenician letter dalet 𐤃,[2] Letters that come from delta include Latin
Latin
D and Cyrillic Д. A river delta (originally, the Nile River
Nile River
delta) is so named because its shape approximates the triangular upper-case letter delta. Despite a popular legend, this use of the word delta was not coined by Herodotus.[3]Contents1 Pronunciation 2 Upper case 3 Lower case 4 Computer encodings 5 See also 6 ReferencesPronunciation[edit] In Ancient Greek, delta represented a voiced dental plosive /d/. In Modern Greek, it represents a voiced dental fricative /ð/, like the "th" in "that" or "this"
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Christopher Kelk Ingold
Sir Christopher Kelk Ingold
Christopher Kelk Ingold
FRS[1] (28 October 1893 – 8 December 1970) was a British chemist based in Leeds and London. His groundbreaking work in the 1920s and 1930s on reaction mechanisms and the electronic structure of organic compounds was responsible for the introduction into mainstream chemistry of concepts such as nucleophile, electrophile, inductive and resonance effects, and such descriptors as SN1, SN2, E1, and E2. He also was a co-author of the Cahn–Ingold–Prelog priority rules. Ingold is regarded as one of the chief pioneers of physical organic chemistry.[3][4][5]Contents1 Scientific work 2 References 3 Further reading 4 External linksScientific work[edit]RSC commemorative plaque at University College.Ingold began his scientific studies at Hartley University College at Southampton (now Southampton University) taking an external BSc in 1913 with the University of London
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Formal Charge
In chemistry, a formal charge (FC) is the charge assigned to an atom in a molecule, assuming that electrons in all chemical bonds are shared equally between atoms, regardless of relative electronegativity.[1] When determining the best Lewis structure
Lewis structure
(or predominant resonance structure) for a molecule, the structure is chosen such that the formal charge on each of the atoms is as close to zero as possible. The formal charge of any atom in a molecule can be calculated by the following equation: F C = V −
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Linus Pauling
As faculty member Caltech
Caltech
(1927–1963) UC San Diego (1967–1969) Stanford (1969–1975)As fellow Cornell University
Cornell Uni

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Oxygen
Oxygen
Oxygen
is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds. By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula O 2. Diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20.8% of the Earth's atmosphere
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Introduction To Quantum Mechanics
Quantum mechanics
Quantum mechanics
is the science of the very small. It explains the behavior of matter and its interactions with energy on the scale of atoms and subatomic particles. By contrast, classical physics only explains matter and energy on a scale familiar to human experience, including the behavior of astronomical bodies such as the Moon. Classical physics
Classical physics
is still used in much of modern science and technology
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Wave Function
A wave function in quantum physics is a mathematical description of the quantum state of an isolated quantum system. The wave function is a complex-valued probability amplitude, and the probabilities for the possible results of measurements made on the system can be derived from it. The most common symbols for a wave function are the Greek letters ψ or Ψ (lower-case and capital psi, respectively). The wave function is a function of the degrees of freedom corresponding to some maximal set of commuting observables. Once such a representation is chosen, the wave function can be derived from the quantum state. For a given system, the choice of which commuting degrees of freedom to use is not unique, and correspondingly the domain of the wave function is also not unique. For instance it may be taken to be a function of all the position coordinates of the particles over position space, or the momenta of all the particles over momentum space; the two are related by a Fourier transform
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Linear Combination
In mathematics, a linear combination is an expression constructed from a set of terms by multiplying each term by a constant and adding the results (e.g. a linear combination of x and y would be any expression of the form ax + by, where a and b are constants).[1][2][3] The concept of linear combinations is central to linear algebra and related fields of mathematics. Most of this article deals with linear combinations in the context of a vector space over a field, with some generalizations given at the end of the article.Contents1 Definition 2 Examples and counterexamples2.1 Euclidean vectors 2.2 Functions 2.3 Polynomials3 The linear span 4 Linear independence 5 Affine, conical, and convex combinations 6 Operad theory 7 Generalizations 8 Application 9 References 10 External linksDefinition[edit] Suppose that K is a field (for example, the real numbers) and V is a vector space over K. As usual, we call elements of V vectors and call elements of K scalars
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Molecular Orbital
In chemistry, a molecular orbital (MO) is a mathematical function describing the wave-like behavior of an electron in a molecule. This function can be used to calculate chemical and physical properties such as the probability of finding an electron in any specific region. The term orbital was introduced by Robert S. Mulliken
Robert S. Mulliken
in 1932 as an abbreviation for one-electron orbital wave function.[1] At an elementary level, it is used to describe the region of space in which the function has a significant amplitude. Molecular orbitals are usually constructed by combining atomic orbitals or hybrid orbitals from each atom of the molecule, or other molecular orbitals from groups of atoms
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VSEPR
Valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory is a model used in chemistry to predict the geometry of individual molecules from the number of electron pairs surrounding their central atoms.[1] It is also named the Gillespie-Nyholm theory after its two main developers, Ronald Gillespie and Ronald Nyholm. The acronym "VSEPR" is pronounced either "ves-pur"[2]:410 or "vuh-seh-per".[3] The premise of VSEPR is that the valence electron pairs surrounding an atom tend to repel each other and will, therefore, adopt an arrangement that minimizes this repulsion, thus determining the molecule's geometry
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