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Chemical Ecology
CHEMICAL ECOLOGY is study of interactions among organisms, and between organisms and their environment, that involve specific molecules or groups of molecules termed semiochemicals that function as signals to initiate, modulate, or terminate a variety of biological processes. Molecules that serve in such roles typically are readily diffusible organic substances of low molecular mass that derive from secondary metabolic pathways , but also include peptides and other natural products . Chemical ecological processes mediated by semiochemicals include ones that are intraspecific (occurring within a species) or that are interspecific (occurring between species)
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Molecule
A MOLECULE is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds . Molecules are distinguished from ions by their lack of electrical charge . However, in quantum physics , organic chemistry , and biochemistry , the term molecule is often used less strictly, also being applied to polyatomic ions . In the kinetic theory of gases , the term molecule is often used for any gaseous particle regardless of its composition. According to this definition, noble gas atoms are considered molecules as they are in fact monoatomic molecules. A molecule may be homonuclear , that is, it consists of atoms of one chemical element , as with oxygen (O2); or it may be heteronuclear , a chemical compound composed of more than one element, as with water (H2O). Atoms and complexes connected by non-covalent interactions , such as hydrogen bonds or ionic bonds , are generally not considered single molecules
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PubMed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed
PubMed
system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
Al Gore

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Abiotic Factors
In biology and ecology , ABIOTIC COMPONENTS or ABIOTIC FACTORS are non-living chemical and physical parts of the environment that affect living organisms and the functioning of ecosystems . Abiotic factors and the phenomena associated with them underpin all biology. Abiotic components include physical conditions and non-living resources that affect living organisms in terms of growth , maintenance , and reproduction . Resources are distinguished as substances or objects in the environment required by one organism and consumed or otherwise made unavailable for use by other organisms. Component degradation of a substance occurs by chemical or physical processes , e.g. hydrolysis . All non-living components of an ecosystem, such as atmospheric conditions and water resources, are called abiotic components. EXAMPLESIn biology, abiotic factors can include water, light, radiation, temperature, humidity , atmosphere , and soil
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Chemical Defense
CHEMICAL DEFENSE is a life history strategy employed by many organisms to avoid consumption by producing toxic or repellent metabolites . The production of defensive chemicals occurs in plants, fungi, and bacteria, as well as invertebrate and vertebrate animals. The class of chemicals produced by organisms that are considered defensive may be considered in a strict sense to only apply to those aiding an organism in escaping herbivory or predation . However, the distinction between types of chemical interaction is subjective and defensive chemicals may also be considered to protect against reduced fitness by pests , parasites , and competitors . Many chemicals used for defensive purposes are secondary metabolites derived from primary metabolites which serve a physiological purpose in the organism
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Quorum Sensing
QUORUM SENSING is a system of stimuli and response correlated to population density . Quorum sensing (QS) enables bacteria to restrict the expression of specific genes to the high cell densities at which the resulting phenotypes will be most beneficial. Many species of bacteria use quorum sensing to coordinate gene expression according to the density of their local population. In similar fashion, some social insects use quorum sensing to determine where to nest. In addition to its function in biological systems, quorum sensing has several useful applications for computing and robotics. Quorum sensing can function as a decision-making process in any decentralized system , as long as individual components have: (a) a means of assessing the number of other components they interact with and (b) a standard response once a threshold number of components is detected
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International Standard Serial Number
An INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER (ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication . The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type , a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media . The ISSN system refers to these types as PRINT ISSN (P-ISSN) and ELECTRONIC ISSN (E-ISSN), respectively
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Chemotaxis
CHEMOTAXIS (from chemo- + taxis ) is the movement of an organism in response to a chemical stimulus. Somatic cells , bacteria , and other single-cell or multicellular organisms direct their movements according to certain chemicals in their environment. This is important for bacteria to find food (e.g., glucose ) by swimming toward the highest concentration of food molecules, or to flee from poisons (e.g., phenol ). In multicellular organisms, chemotaxis is critical to early development (e.g., movement of sperm towards the egg during fertilization ) and subsequent phases of development (e.g., migration of neurons or lymphocytes ) as well as in normal function. In addition, it has been recognized that mechanisms that allow chemotaxis in animals can be subverted during cancer metastasis . Positive chemotaxis occurs if the movement is toward a higher concentration of the chemical in question; negative chemotaxis if the movement is in the opposite direction
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Temperature
TEMPERATURE is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold . Temperature
Temperature
is measured with a thermometer , historically calibrated in various temperature scales and units of measurement . The most commonly used scales are the Celsius scale , denoted in °C (informally, degrees centigrade), the Fahrenheit scale (°F), and the Kelvin scale . The kelvin (K) is the unit of temperature in the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI), in which temperature is one of the seven fundamental base quantities . The coldest theoretical temperature is absolute zero , at which the thermal motion of all fundamental particles in matter reaches a minimum. Although classically described as motionless, particles still possess a finite zero-point energy in the quantum mechanical description
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Radiation
In physics , RADIATION is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium. This includes: * electromagnetic radiation , such as radio waves , microwaves , visible light , x-rays , and gamma radiation (γ) * particle radiation , such as alpha radiation (α) , beta radiation (β) , and neutron radiation (particles of non-zero rest energy) * acoustic radiation, such as ultrasound , sound , and seismic waves (dependent on a physical transmission medium) * gravitational radiation , radiation that takes the form of gravitational waves, or ripples in the curvature of spacetime. Radiation
Radiation
is often categorized as either ionizing or non-ionizing depending on the energy of the radiated particles. Ionizing radiation carries more than 10 eV , which is enough to ionize atoms and molecules, and break chemical bonds
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PubMed Central
PUBMED CENTRAL (PMC) is a free digital repository that archives publicly accessible full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the biomedical and life sciences journal literature. As one of the major research databases within the suite of resources that have been developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), PubMed
PubMed
Central is much more than just a document repository. Submissions into PMC undergo an indexing and formatting procedure which results in enhanced metadata, medical ontology , and unique identifiers which all enrich the XML
XML
structured data for each article on deposit. Content within PMC can easily be interlinked to many other NCBI databases and accessed via Entrez
Entrez
search and retrieval systems, further enhancing the public's ability to freely discover, read and build upon this portfolio of biomedical knowledge
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Wendell L. Roelofs
Central College in Pella, Iowa Indiana University Bloomington Massachusetts Institute of Technology OCCUPATION biochemist EMPLOYER Cornell University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Department of Entomology-Geneva KNOWN FOR Developed insect sex attractants for pest control TITLE Liberty Hyde Bailey Professor of Insect Biochemistry POLITICAL PARTY Republican SPOUSE(S) Marilyn Joyce Kuiken (c:a 1960 until ?) Joanna? Donna R. Gray (1989 until ?) Joanna Roelofs, Jan. 13, 2005 CHILDREN Brenda Jo, Caryn Jean, Jeffrey Lee, and Kevin Jon PARENT(S) Edward and Edith Beyers Roelofs RELATIVES two brothers, one chemist , the other an electrical engineer AWARDS 1973 J Everett Bussart Award, Entomol Soc Am 1977 Alexander von Humboldt Award 1990 Silver Medal, Int Soc Chem Ecol 1982 Wolf Prize in Agriculture 1983 National Medal of Science 2001 American Chemical Society's Kenneth A
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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Ethology
ETHOLOGY is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait. Behaviourism is a term that also describes the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually referring to measured responses to stimuli or trained behavioural responses in a laboratory context, without a particular emphasis on evolutionary adaptivity. Many naturalists have studied aspects of animal behaviour throughout history. Ethology
Ethology
has its scientific roots in the work of Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
and of American and German ornithologists of the late 19th and early 20th century, including Charles O
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Organic Chemistry
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials , i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms . Study of structure includes many physical and chemical methods to determine the chemical composition and the chemical constitution of organic compounds and materials. Study of properties includes both physical properties and chemical properties , and uses similar methods as well as methods to evaluate chemical reactivity , with the aim to understand the behavior of the organic matter in its pure form (when possible), but also in solutions, mixtures, and fabricated forms
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Analytical Chemistry
ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate , identify, and quantify matter. In practice separation, identification or quantification may constitute the entire analysis or be combined with another method. Separation isolates analytes . Qualitative analysis identifies analytes, while quantitative analysis determines the numerical amount or concentration. Analytical chemistry
Analytical chemistry
consists of classical, wet chemical methods and modern, instrumental methods . Classical qualitative methods use separations such as precipitation , extraction , and distillation . Identification may be based on differences in color, odor, melting point, boiling point, radioactivity or reactivity. Classical quantitative analysis uses mass or volume changes to quantify amount. Instrumental methods may be used to separate samples using chromatography , electrophoresis or field flow fractionation
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