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Chechen–Russian Conflict
Incorporation of Chechnya
Chechnya
into RussiaChechen independence from 1991 to 1999 Russian conquest of Chechnya
Chechnya
and low-level insurgencyBelligerentsChechen nationalist and Islamist rebels: Caucasus Emirate (
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North Caucasus
The North Caucasus
Caucasus
(Russian: Се́верный Кавка́з, IPA: [ˈsʲevʲɪrnɨj kɐfˈkas]) or Ciscaucasia is the northern part of the Caucasus
Caucasus
region between the Sea of Azov
Sea of Azov
and Black Sea
Black Sea
on the west and the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
on the east, within European Russia. Geography[edit] Geographically, the Northern Caucasus
Caucasus
(territory north of the Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
Range) includes the Russian republics and krais of the North Caucasus
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Astrakhan
Astrakhan
Astrakhan
(Russian: Астрахань, IPA: [ˈastrəxənʲ]) is a city in southern Russia
Russia
and the administrative center of Astrakhan Oblast. The city lies on two banks of the Volga River, close to where it discharges into the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
at an altitude of 28 meters (92 ft) below sea level
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Persian Empire
The Persian Empire
Empire
(Persian: شاهنشاهی ایران‎, translit. Šâhanšâhiye Irân, lit. 'Imperial Iran') is a series of imperial dynasties centered in Persia/ Iran
Iran
since the 6th century BC in the Achaemenid
Achaemenid
era, to the 20th century AD in the Qajar
Qajar
era.Contents1 Achaemenids 2 Parthians and Sasanians 3 Safavids 4 List of the dynasties described as a Persian Empire 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksAchaemenids The first dynasty of the Persian Empire
Empire
was created by Achaemenids, established by Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
in 550 BC with the conquest of Median, Lydian and Babylonian empires.[1] It covered much of the Ancient world and controlled the largest percentage of the earth's population in history when it was conquered by Alexander the Great
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Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire (/ˈɒtəmən/; Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye[dn 5]), also historically known in Western Europe
Europe
as the Turkish Empire[8] or simply Turkey,[9] was a state that controlled much of southeastern Europe, western Asia and northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia
Anatolia
in the town of Söğüt (modern-day Bilecik Province) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman.[10] After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire
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Russian Civil War
Victory for the Red Army
Red Army
in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, South Caucasus, Central Asia, Tuva, and Mongolia; Victory for pro-independence movements in Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine
Ukraine
(1919–20)
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Middle East
The Middle East[note 1] is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey
Turkey
(both Asian and European), and Egypt
Egypt
(which is mostly in North Africa). The corresponding adjective is Middle Eastern and the derived noun is Middle Easterner. The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term Near East
Near East
(as opposed to the Far East) beginning in the early 20th century. Arabs, Turks, Persians, Kurds, and Azeris (excluding Azerbaijan) constitute the largest ethnic groups in the region by population.[2] Minorities of the Middle East
Middle East
include Jews, Baloch, Greeks, Assyrians, and other Arameans, Berbers, Circassians
Circassians
(including Kabardians), Copts, Druze, Lurs, Mandaeans, Samaritans, Shabaks, Tats, and Zazas. In the Middle East, there is also a Romani community
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Ivan The Terrible
Ivan IV Vasilyevich (Russian: Ива́н Васи́льевич, tr. Ivan Vasilyevich; 25 August 1530 – 28 March [O.S. 18 March] 1584),[2] commonly known as Ivan the Terrible
Ivan the Terrible
or Ivan the Fearsome (Russian:  Ива́н Гро́зный​ (help·info), Ivan Grozny; a better translation into modern English would be Ivan the Formidable), was the Grand Prince of Moscow
Grand Prince of Moscow
from 1533 to 1547, then Tsar
Tsar
of All the Russias until his death in 1584. The last title was used by all his successors. During his reign, Russia conquered the Khanates of Kazan, Astrakhan and Sibir, becoming a multiethnic and multicontinental state spanning approximately 4,050,000 km2 (1,560,000 sq mi). He exercised autocratic control over Russia's hereditary nobility and developed a bureaucracy to administer the new territories
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Golden Horde
The Golden Horde
Golden Horde
(Mongolian: Алтан Орд, Altan Ord; Russian: Золотая Орда, Zolotaya Orda; Tatar: Алтын Урда, Altın Urda) was originally a Mongol
Mongol
and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire.[6] With the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire
Empire
after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanate. It is also known as the Kipchak Khanate or as the Ulus of Jochi.[7] After the death of Batu Khan
Batu Khan
(the founder of the Golden Horde) in 1255, his dynasty flourished for a full century, until 1359, though the intrigues of Nogai did instigate a partial civil war in the late 1290s. The Horde's military power peaked during the reign of Uzbeg (1312–1341), who adopted Islam
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Khanate
A Khanate or Khaganate is a political entity ruled by a Khan or Khagan. This political entity is typical for people from the Eurasian Steppe and it can be equivalent to tribal chiefdom, principality, kingdom or even empire.Contents1 Mongol khanates (or khaganates) 2 Turkic khanates2.1 Central Asian Turkic khanates3 18th to early 19th century Khanates of the Caucasus
Khanates of the Caucasus
in the Qajar Empire 4 Other khanates 5 See also 6 ReferencesMongol khanates (or khaganates)[edit] Main articles: List of Mongol states
List of Mongol states
and List of Mongol rulers After Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
established appanages for his family in the Mongol Empire
Empire
during his rule (1206-1227),[1] his sons, daughters,[2] and grandsons inherited separate sections of the empire. The Mongol Empire and Mongolian khanates emerging from those appanages[3] are listed below
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Kazan
Kazan
Kazan
(Russian: Каза́нь, IPA: [kɐˈzanʲ]; Tatar: Казан) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia. With a population of 1,143,535, it is the sixth most populous city in Russia.[8] Kazan
Kazan
lies at the confluence of the Volga and Kazanka Rivers in European Russia
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Persia
Iran
Iran
(Persian: ایران‎ Irān [ʔiːˈɾɒːn] ( listen)), also known as Persia[10] (/ˈpɜːrʒə/),[11] officially the Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Iran (Persian: جمهوری اسلامی ایران‎ Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān ( listen)),[12] is a sovereign state in Western Asia.[13][14] With over 81 million inhabitants,[6] Iran
Iran
is the world's 18th-most-populous country.[15] Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second-largest country in the Middle East
Middle East
and the 17th-largest in the world
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Russian Language
Russian (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language
East Slavic language
and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and many minor or unrecognised territories throughout Eurasia
Eurasia
(particularly in Eastern Europe, the Baltics, the Caucasus, and Central Asia). It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Latvia, Moldova, Ukraine
Ukraine
and to a lesser extent, the other post-Soviet states.[31][32] Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
and is one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages
Slavic languages
(which in turn is part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch)
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Crimean Khanate
The Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate
(Karimia Khanate) (Mongolian: Крымын ханлиг; Crimean Tatar
Tatar
/ Ottoman Turkish: Къырым Ханлыгъы, Qırım Hanlığı / قرم خانلغى or Къырым Юрту, Qırım Yurtu / قرم يورتى; Russian: Крымское ханство, Krymskoje hanstvo; Ukrainian: Кримське ханство, Krymśke chanstvo; Polish: Chanat Krymski) was a Turkic vassal state of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
from 1478 to 1774, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde. Established by Hacı I Giray
Hacı I Giray
in 1449, the Crimean khans were the patrilineal descendants of Toqa Temür, thirteenth son of Jochi
Jochi
and grandson of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
through marriage; Temür married one of Genghis Khan's granddaughters
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Cossacks
Cossacks
Cossacks
(Ukrainian: козаки́, kozaky, Russian: казаки́, kazaki, Belarusian: казакi, Polish: kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, Hungarian: kozákok) were a group of predominantly East Slavic-speaking people who became known as members of democratic, self-governing, semi-military communities, predominantly located in Southern Russia
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Chechen People
250-500[20]Data figures from 2001 to 2013; see also Chechen diaspora.[21]LanguagesChechen See Language sectionReligionPredominantly Islam
Islam
(mainly Shafi'i
Shafi'i
Sunni Muslim)[22], minority Christianity and atheismRelated ethnic groups Nakh peoples
Nakh peoples
(Ingush people, Bats people, Kist people) and other Northeast Caucasian people Chechens
Chechens
(/ˈtʃɛtʃən/; Chechen: Нохчий Noxçiy; Old Chechen: Нахчой Naxçoy) are a Caucasian ethnic group of the Nakh peoples originating in the North Caucasus
North Caucasus
region of Eastern Europe. They refer to themselves as Vainakhs (which means "our people" in Chechen) or Nokhchiy (pronounced [no̞xtʃʼiː]; singular Nokhchi, Nakhchuo or Nakhtche).[23] Chechen and Ingush peoples are collectively known as the Vainakh
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