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Chartography
Cartography
Cartography
(from Greek χάρτης khartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps. Combining science, aesthetics, and technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality can be modeled in ways that communicate spatial information effectively. The fundamental problems of traditional cartography are to:Set the map's agenda and select traits of the object to be mapped. This is the concern of map editing. Traits may be physical, such as roads or land masses, or may be abstract, such as toponyms or political boundaries. Represent the terrain of the mapped object on flat media. This is the concern of map projections. Eliminate characteristics of the mapped object that are not relevant to the map's purpose. This is the concern of generalization. Reduce the complexity of the characteristics that will be mapped
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Cartogram
A cartogram is a map in which some thematic mapping variable – such as travel time, population, or Gross National Product – is substituted for land area or distance. The geometry or space of the map is distorted in order to convey the information of this alternate variable. They are primarily used to display emphasis and for analysis as nomographs.[1] Two common types of cartograms are area and distance cartograms. Cartograms have a fairly long history, with examples from the mid-1800s.[2]Contents1 Area cartograms 2 Production2.1 Algorithms3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksArea cartograms[edit]Area cartogram of the United States, with each county rescaled in proportion to its population. Colors refer to the results of the 2004 U.S
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Qin (state)
Qin (Chinese: 秦; Wade–Giles: Ch'in; Old Chinese: *[dz]i[n]) was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty. It took its origin in a reconquest of western lands previously lost to the Rong; its position at the western edge of Chinese civilization permitted expansion and development that was unavailable to its rivals in the North China Plain. Following extensive "Legalist" reform in the 3rd century BC, Qin emerged as one of the dominant powers of the Seven Warring States and unified China in 221 BC under Shi Huangdi
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Oceanus
Oceanus
Oceanus
(/oʊˈsiːənəs/; Greek: Ὠκεανός Ōkeanós,[1] pronounced [ɔːkeanós]), also known as Ogenus (Ὤγενος Ōgenos or Ὠγηνός Ōgēnos) or Ogen (Ὠγήν Ōgēn),[2] was a divine figure in classical antiquity, believed by the ancient Greeks and Romans to be the divine personification of the sea, an enormous river encircling the world.Contents1 Etymology 2 Mythological account 3 Iconography 4 In cosmography and geography 5 Genealogical chart 6 See also 7 References 8 Sources 9 External linksEtymology[edit] Oceanus
Oceanus
attending the Wedding of Peleus
Peleus
and Thetis
Thetis
on an Athenian, black-figure Dinos
Dinos
by Sophilos, c. 590 BC (British Museum)R. S. P
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Ancient Greeks
Ancient Greece
Greece
was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages
Greek Dark Ages
of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (c. 600 AD). Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the Byzantine
Byzantine
era.[1] Roughly three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse
Late Bronze Age collapse
of Mycenaean Greece, Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the period of Archaic Greece
Archaic Greece
and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin. This was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum
Mediolanum
(286–402, Western) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna
Ravenna
(402–476, Western)
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Anaximander
Anaximander
Anaximander
(/æˌnæksɪˈmændər/; Greek: Ἀναξίμανδρος Anaximandros; c. 610 – c. 546 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher who lived in Miletus,[4] a city of Ionia
Ionia
(in modern-day Turkey). He belonged to the Milesian school
Milesian school
and learned the teachings of his master Thales. He succeeded Thales
Thales
and became the second master of that school where he counted Anaximenes and, arguably, Pythagoras amongst his pupils.[5] Little of his life and work is known today. According to available historical documents, he is the first philosopher known to have written down his studies,[6] although only one fragment of his work remains
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Ptolemy
Claudius
Claudius
Ptolemy
Ptolemy
(/ˈtɒləmi/; Greek: Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos [kláwdios ptolɛmɛ́ːos]; Latin: Claudius
Claudius
Ptolemaeus; c. AD 100 – c. 170)[2] was a Greco-Roman[3] mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.[4][5] He lived in the city of Alexandria
Alexandria
in the Roman province of Egypt, wrote in Koine Greek, and held Roman citizenship.[6] The 14th-century astronomer Theodore Meliteniotes gave his birthplace as the prominent Greek city Ptolemais Hermiou
Ptolemais Hermiou
(Greek: Πτολεμαΐς ‘Ερμείου) in the Thebaid
Thebaid
(Greek: Θηβαΐδα [Θηβαΐς])
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Treatise
A treatise is a formal and systematic written discourse on some subject, generally longer and treating it in greater depth than an essay, and more concerned with investigating or exposing the principles of the subject. Noteworthy treatises[edit] Treatises have been written by various philosophers:The book of Acts refers to the Gospel of Luke as "the former treatise" Kautilya—Arthashastra Valluvar—The Kural Xenophon—Oeconomicus Aristotle—various treatises Adi Shankara—Vivekacūḍāmaṇi (Crest-Jewel of Discrimination) and many others. Claudius Ptolemaeus—Almagest Nizam al-Mulk— Siyasatnama (The Book of Government) Niccolò Machiavelli—The Prince, and Discourses on Livy René Descartes—The World, Compendium Musicae, and
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Geographia
The Geography (Greek: Γεωγραφικὴ Ὑφήγησις, Geōgraphikḕ Hyphḗgēsis, lit. "Geographical Guidance"), also known by its Latin
Latin
names as the Geographia and the Cosmographia, is a gazetteer, an atlas, and a treatise on cartography, compiling the geographical knowledge of the 2nd-century Roman Empire
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Ptolemy's World Map
The Ptolemy
Ptolemy
world map is a map of the world known to Hellenistic society in the 2nd century. It is based on the description contained in Ptolemy's book Geography, written c. 150. Based on an inscription in several of the earliest surviving manuscripts, it is traditionally credited to Agathodaemon of Alexandria. Significant contributions of Ptolemy's maps are the first use of longitudinal and latitudinal lines as well as specifying terrestrial locations by celestial observations. The Geography was translated from Greek into Arabic in the 9th century and played a role in the work of al-Khwārizmī before lapsing into obscurity. The idea of a global coordinate system revolutionized European geographical thought, however, and inspired more mathematical treatment of cartography. Ptolemy's work probably originally came with maps, but none have been discovered
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List Of Graeco-Roman Geographers
M. of Tyre (Μαρῖνος; Marînos), Greek geographer, 2nd cent. ADExternal links[edit]Karl Wilhelm Ludwig Muller:Geographi graeci minores, Carolus Muellerus (ed.), 2 voll., Parisiis, editoribus Firmin-Didot et sociis, 1855-61: vol. 1 (1882 reprint), vol. 2, tabulae.Gottfried Bernhardy:Geographi graeci minores, Godofredi Bernhardy (ed.), Lipsiae in libraria Weidmannia, 1828: vol
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Ancient China
The earliest known written records of the history of China
China
date from as early as 1250 BC,[1][2] from the Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
(c. 1600–1046 BC).[3] Ancient historical texts such as the Records of the Grand Historian (c. 100 BC) and the Bamboo Annals (296 BC) describe a Xia dynasty (c. 2070–1600 BC) before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period, and Shang
Shang
writings do not indicate the existence of the Xia.[3][4] The Shang
Shang
ruled in the Yellow River
Yellow River
valley, which is commonly held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic
Neolithic
civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River
Yellow River
and Yangtze
Yangtze
River
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Warring States Period
The Warring States period
Warring States period
(Chinese: 戰國時代; pinyin: Zhànguó shídài) was an era in ancient Chinese history of intensive warfare all around China with the goal of creating one Chinese Empire, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period
Spring and Autumn period
and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire
Chinese empire
known as the Qin dynasty. Although different scholars point toward different dates ranging from 481 BC to 403 BC as the true beginning of the Warring States, Sima Qian's choice of 475 BC is the most often cited
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Assyria
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian
Mesopotamian
kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East
Near East
and the Levant
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China
China, officially the People's Republic
People's Republic
of China
China
(PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia
East Asia
and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area,[k][19] depending on the source consulted. China
China
also has the most neighbor countries in the world
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