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Charles Wheatstone
SIR CHARLES WHEATSTONE /ˈwiːtstən/ FRS (6 February 1802 – 19 October 1875), was an English scientist and inventor of many scientific breakthroughs of the Victorian era
Victorian era
, including the English concertina , the stereoscope (a device for displaying three-dimensional images), and the Playfair cipher (an encryption technique). However, Wheatstone is best known for his contributions in the development of the Wheatstone bridge , originally invented by Samuel Hunter Christie , which is used to measure an unknown electrical resistance, and as a major figure in the development of telegraphy
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Luminiferous Ether
In the late 19th century, LUMINIFEROUS AETHER, AETHER, or ETHER, meaning light-bearing aether , was the postulated medium for the propagation of light . It was invoked to explain the ability of the apparently wave -based light to propagate through empty space, something that waves should not be able to do. The assumption of a spatial plenum of luminiferous aether, rather than a spatial vacuum, provided the theoretical medium that was required by wave theories of light. The concept was the topic of considerable debate throughout its history, as it required the existence of an invisible and infinite material with no interaction with physical objects. As the nature of light was explored, especially in the 19th century, the physical qualities required of the aether became increasingly contradictory. By the late 1800s, the existence of the aether was being questioned, although there was no physical theory to replace it
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Metre Per Second
METRE PER SECOND ( American English
American English
: METER PER SECOND) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar ) and velocity (vector quantity which specifies both magnitude and a specific direction), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds . The SI unit symbols are m·s−1, m s−1, m/s, or m/s, sometimes (unofficially) abbreviated as "mps". Where metres per second are several orders of magnitude too slow to be convenient, such as in astronomical measurements, velocities may be given in kilometres per second, where 1 km/s is 1000 metres per second, sometimes unofficially abbreviated as "kps"
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Edinburgh
EDINBURGH (/ˈɛdɪnb(ə)rə/ ( listen ); Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
: Dùn Èideann ; Scots : Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland
Scotland
and one of its 32 council areas . It is located in Lothian on the Firth of Forth 's southern shore. Recognised as the capital of Scotland
Scotland
since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
is home to the Scottish Parliament
Scottish Parliament
and the seat of the monarchy in Scotland. Historically part of Midlothian
Midlothian
, the city has long been a centre of education, particularly in the fields of medicine, Scots law , literature, the sciences and engineering
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Robert Hooke
ROBERT HOOKE FRS (/hʊk/ ; 28 July 1635 – 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher , architect and polymath . His adult life comprised three distinct periods: as a scientific inquirer lacking money; achieving great wealth and standing through his reputation for hard work and scrupulous honesty following the great fire of 1666 , and eventually becoming ill and party to jealous intellectual disputes (the latter may have contributed to his relative historical obscurity). At one time he was simultaneously the curator of experiments of the Royal Society
Royal Society
, a member of its council, Gresham Professor of Geometry , and Surveyor to the City of London
London
after the Great Fire of London (in which capacity he appears to have performed more than half of all the surveys after the fire)
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Hammered Dulcimer
The HAMMERED DULCIMER is a percussion -stringed instrument which consists of strings typically stretched over a trapezoidal resonant sound board. The hammered dulcimer is set before the musician, who, in more traditional styles, may sit cross legged on the floor, or at a more modern style of standing or sitting at a wooden stand on legs. The player holds a small spoon shaped mallet hammer in each hand to strike the strings (cf. Appalachian dulcimer
Appalachian dulcimer
). The Graeco-Roman dulcimer (sweet song) derives from the Latin
Latin
dulcis (sweet) and the Greek melos (song). The dulcimer, in which the strings are beaten with small hammers, originated from the psaltery , in which the strings are plucked
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Harp
The HARP is a stringed musical instrument that has a number of individual strings running at an angle to its soundboard ; the strings are plucked with the fingers. Harps have been known since antiquity in Asia, Africa and Europe, dating back at least as early as 3500 BC. The instrument had great popularity in Europe during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, where it evolved into a wide range of variants with new technologies, and was disseminated to Europe's colonies, finding particular popularity in Latin America. Although some ancient members of the harp family died out in the Near East and South Asia, descendants of early harps are still played in Myanmar and parts of Africa, and other defunct variants in Europe and Asia have been utilized by musicians in the modern era. Harps vary globally in many ways. In terms of size, many smaller harps can be played on the lap, whereas larger harps are quite heavy and rest on the floor
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Taunton
TAUNTON /ˈtɔːntən/ is the county town of Somerset
Somerset
, England. The built up area of the town had a population of 64,621 in 2011. The town has over 1,000 years of religious and military history, including a monastery dating back to the 10th century and Taunton Castle , which has origins in the Anglo Saxon period and was later the site of a priory . The Normans
Normans
then built a stone structured castle, which belonged to the Bishops of Winchester . The current heavily reconstructed buildings are the inner ward, which now houses the Museum of Somerset
Somerset
and the Somerset
Somerset
Military Museum. The town is undergoing a regeneration project with redevelopment of the town centre. It has various transport links which support its central role in economy and commerce
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Royal Swedish Academy Of Sciences
SCIENCE (from Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge") :58 is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe . Contemporary science is typically subdivided into the natural sciences , which study the material universe ; the social sciences , which study people and societies; and the formal sciences , which study logic and mathematics . The formal sciences are often excluded as they do not depend on empirical observations. Disciplines which use science, like engineering and medicine , may also be considered to be applied sciences . From classical antiquity through the 19th century, science as a type of knowledge was more closely linked to philosophy than it is now, and in the Western world the term "natural philosophy " once encompassed fields of study that are today associated with science, such as astronomy , medicine, and physics
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French Academy Of Sciences
The FRENCH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society , founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert
Jean-Baptiste Colbert
, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research . It was at the forefront of scientific developments in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, and is one of the earliest Academies of Sciences . Currently headed by Sébastien Candel (President of the Academy), it is one of the five Academies of the Institut de France
Institut de France

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Micrographia
MICROGRAPHIA: OR SOME PHYſIOLOGICAL DEſCRIPTIONS OF MINUTE BODIES MADE BY MAGNIFYING GLASSES. WITH OBSERVATIONS AND INQUIRIES THEREUPON. is a historically significant book by Robert Hooke
Robert Hooke
about his observations through various lenses. It is particularly notable for being the first book to illustrate insects, plants etc. as seen through microscopes. Published in January 1665, the first major publication of the Royal Society
Royal Society
, it became the first scientific best-seller, inspiring a wide public interest in the new science of microscopy . It is also notable for coining the biological term cell . CONTENTS * 1 Observations * 2 Reception * 3 Methods * 4 Bibliography * 5 References * 6 External links OBSERVATIONSHooke most famously describes a fly 's eye and a plant cell (where he coined that term because plant cells, which are walled, reminded him of the cells in a honeycomb )
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Hanover Square Rooms
The HANOVER SQUARE ROOMS or the QUEEN\'S CONCERT ROOMS were assembly rooms established, principally for musical performances, on the corner of Hanover Square, London , by Sir John Gallini in partnership with Johann Christian Bach
Johann Christian Bach
and Carl Friedrich Abel in 1774. For exactly one century this was the principal concert venue in London. The premises were demolished in 1900. CONTENTS * 1 History of the Rooms * 2 Gallery * 3 Notes * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORY OF THE ROOMS Queen Adelaide attending a fair in aid of distressed foreigners in the Rooms in 1833 Detail of Hanover Square from Richard Horwood 's 1795 map of London. The Hanover Square Rooms
Hanover Square Rooms
are marked as "concert rooms" next to No.4 Hanover Square (click 3x for detail)
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Leyden Jar
A LEYDEN JAR, or LEIDEN JAR, is a device that "stores" static electricity between two electrodes on the inside and outside of a glass jar. A Leyden jar
Leyden jar
typically consists of a glass jar with metal foil cemented to the inside and the outside surfaces, and a metal terminal projecting vertically through the jar lid to make contact with the inner foil. It was the original form of a capacitor (originally known as a "condenser"). It was invented independently by German cleric Ewald Georg von Kleist on 11 October 1745 and by Dutch scientist Pieter van Musschenbroek
Pieter van Musschenbroek
of Leiden
Leiden
(Leyden) in 1745–1746. The invention was named after the city. The Leyden jar
Leyden jar
was used to conduct many early experiments in electricity, and its discovery was of fundamental importance in the study of electrostatics
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Michael Faraday
MICHAEL FARADAY FRS (/ˈfæ.rəˌdeɪ/ ; 22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry . His main discoveries include the principles underlying electromagnetic induction , diamagnetism and electrolysis . Although Faraday received little formal education, he was one of the most influential scientists in history. It was by his research on the magnetic field around a conductor carrying a direct current that Faraday established the basis for the concept of the electromagnetic field in physics. Faraday also established that magnetism could affect rays of light and that there was an underlying relationship between the two phenomena. He similarly discovered the principles of electromagnetic induction and diamagnetism, and the laws of electrolysis
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Hippolyte Fizeau
ARMAND HIPPOLYTE LOUIS FIZEAU FRS FRSE
FRSE
MIF (23 September 1819 – 18 September 1896) was a French physicist , best known for measuring the speed of light in the namesake Fizeau experiment . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links BIOGRAPHYFizeau was born in Paris to Louis and Beatrice Fizeau. He married into the de Jussieu botanical family. His earliest work was concerned with improvements in photographic processes. Following suggestions by François Arago
François Arago
, Léon Foucault
Léon Foucault
and Fizeau collaborated in a series of investigations on the interference of light and heat. In 1848, he predicted the redshifting of electromagnetic waves . In 1849, Fizeau calculated a value for the speed of light to a better precision than the previous value determined by Ole Rømer
Ole Rømer
in 1676
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