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Charles K. Kao
SIR CHARLES KUEN KAO, GBM , KBE
KBE
, FRS , FREng
FREng
(born 4 November 1933) is a Chinese-born Shanghainese electrical engineer and physicist who pioneered the development and use of fiber optics in telecommunications. In the 1960s, Kao created various methods to combine glass fibers with lasers in order to transmit digital data, which laid the groundwork for the evolution of the Internet
Internet
. "Communication as we know it, including the Internet, would not exist without fiber optics," said William Wulf, president of the National Academy of Engineering in 1999. Known as the "Godfather of Broadband", the "Father of Fiber Optics", and the "Father of Fiber Optic Communications", Kao was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
for "groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication"
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KBE
The MOST EXCELLENT ORDER OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE is a British order of chivalry , rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, and public service outside the Civil Service. It was established on 4 June 1917 by King George V
George V
, and comprises five classes across both civil and military divisions, the most senior two of which make the recipient either a knight if male, or dame if female. There is also the related British Empire Medal , whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order. Recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire were at first made on the nomination of the United Kingdom, the self-governing Dominions
Dominions
of the Empire (later Commonwealth) and the Viceroy of India
Viceroy of India

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Physics
PHYSICS (from Ancient Greek : φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), translit. physikḗ (epistḗmē), lit. 'knowledge of nature', from φύσις phýsis "nature" ) is the natural science that studies matter and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force . Physics
Physics
is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves. Physics
Physics
is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy , perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry , biology , and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy , but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right
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Yale University
YALE UNIVERSITY is an American private Ivy League
Ivy League
research university in New Haven, Connecticut . Founded in 1701, it is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States
United States
and one of the nine Colonial Colleges chartered before the American Revolution
American Revolution
. Chartered by Connecticut
Connecticut
Colony , the "Collegiate School" was established by clergy in Saybrook Colony to educate Congregational ministers. It moved to New Haven
New Haven
in 1716 and shortly after was renamed Yale College
Yale College
in recognition of a gift from British East India Company governor Elihu Yale
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3463 Kaokuen
This is a partial list of minor planets , running from 3001 through 4000, inclusive. For an overview of the entire catalog of numbered minor planets, see main index . Also see the corresponding list meanings of minor planet names: 3001–4000 for details on any named body in this range. Near-Earth obj. MBA (inner) MBA (outer) Centaur Mars-crosser
Mars-crosser
MBA (middle) Jupiter trojan
Jupiter trojan
Trans-Neptunian obj
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Prince Philip Medal
The PRINCE PHILIP MEDAL is named after Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh , who is the Senior Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering (RAE). In 1989 Prince Philip agreed to the commissioning of solid gold medals to be "awarded periodically to an engineer of any nationality who has made an exceptional contribution to engineering as a whole through practice, management or education." The first of these medals was awarded in 1991 to Air Commodore
Air Commodore
Sir Frank Whittle . Another medal also known as the Prince Philip medal is the City and Guilds Institute of London Gold Medal, awarded by the City & Guilds
City & Guilds
. This was awarded to Jocelyn Burton , the first woman recipient, in 2003 for outstanding achievements in the fields of science and engineering
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C&C Prize
C&C PRIZEs (Japanese : C&C賞) is an award given by the NEC Corporation "in recognition of outstanding contributions to research and development and/or pioneering work in the fields of semiconductors, computers, telecommunications and their integrated technologies." Established in 1985, through the NEC's nonprofit C&C Foundation, C font-style: normal;"> (ja), Dr. Hideki Imai * Group B: Dr. Jan Uddenfeldt, Dr. Irwin M. Jacobs
Irwin M. Jacobs
, Prof. Fumiyuki Adachi* 2013 Recipients * Group A: Prof. Kazuro Kikuchi , Masataka Nakazawa (de) * Group B: Prof. Vladimir Vapnik * 2012 Recipients * Group A: Dr. Osamu Yamada, Dr. Toru Kuroda, Mr. Masayuki Takada * Group B: Dr. Hisashi Kobayashi * 2011 Recipients * Group A: Dr. Akira Yoshino * Group B: Dr. Norman Abramson , Dr. Robert Metcalfe
Robert Metcalfe
* 2010 Recipients * Group A: Dr
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Faraday Medal
The FARADAY MEDAL is the top medal awarded by the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) (previously called the Institution of Electrical Engineers ). It is part of the IET Achievement Medals collection of awards. The medal is named after the famous Michael Faraday FRS, the father of electromagnetism. Faraday is widely recognized as a top scientist, engineer, chemist, and inventor. His electromagnetic induction principles have been widely used in electric motors and generators today
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CBE
The MOST EXCELLENT ORDER OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE is a British order of chivalry , rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, and public service outside the Civil Service. It was established on 4 June 1917 by King George V
George V
, and comprises five classes across both civil and military divisions, the most senior two of which make the recipient either a knight if male, or dame if female. There is also the related British Empire Medal , whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order. Recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire were at first made on the nomination of the United Kingdom, the self-governing Dominions
Dominions
of the Empire (later Commonwealth) and the Viceroy of India
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Doctoral Advisor
A DOCTORAL ADVISOR (also DISSERTATION DIRECTOR or DISSERTATION ADVISOR) is a member of a university faculty whose role is to guide graduate students who are candidates for a doctorate , helping them select coursework, as well as shaping, refining and directing the students' choice of sub-discipline in which they will be examined or on which they will write a dissertation . Students generally choose advisors based on their areas of interest within their discipline, their desire to work closely with particular graduate faculty, and the willingness and availability of those faculty to work with them. In some countries, the student's advisor serves as the chair of the doctoral examination or dissertation committees. In some cases, though, the person who serves those roles may be different from the faculty member who has most closely advised the student
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Harold Barlow
HAROLD EVERARD MONTEAGLE BARLOW FRS (15 November 1899 – 20 April 1989) was a British engineer. He was born in Islington, London, the son of Leonard Barlow, an electrical engineer. He entered University College, London
University College, London
where, apart from the World War II years (which he spent ar Royal Aircraft Establishment , Farnborough), he spent most of his working life. He was taught by Ambrose Fleming
Ambrose Fleming
, who held the Pender Chair there. Barlow went on to succeed Fleming in that chair, and hence also in the post of head of department. Among his students, Barlow supervised Charles Kao , the 2009 Nobel Laureate for Physics, for a doctoral degree. CONTENTS * 1 Honours and awards * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links HONOURS AND AWARDSIn March, 1961 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society
Fellow of the Royal Society

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Standard Chinese
STANDARD CHINESE, also known as MODERN STANDARD MANDARIN, STANDARD MANDARIN, or simply MANDARIN, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China
China
and Taiwan
Taiwan
, and also one of the four official languages of Singapore
Singapore
. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect , its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects , and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese . Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants and tones than southern varieties. Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is an analytic language , though with many compound words
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Hanyu Pinyin
HANYU PINYIN ROMANIZATION (simplified Chinese : 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese : 漢語拼音; literally: "Han Chinese spelling of sounds"), often abbreviated to PINYIN, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan
Taiwan
. It is often used to teach Standard (Mandarin) Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters . The system includes four diacritics denoting tones . Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet , and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang , based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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Wade–Giles
WADE–GILES (/ˌweɪd ˈdʒaɪlz/ ), sometimes abbreviated WADE, is a Romanization
Romanization
system for Mandarin Chinese
Mandarin Chinese
. It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade , during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles 's Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892. Wade–Giles was the system of transcription in the English-speaking world for most of the 20th century, used in standard reference books and in English language books published before 1979. It replaced the Nanking dialect -based romanization systems that had been common until the late 19th century, such as the Postal Romanization
Postal Romanization
(still used in some place-names). In mainland China it has been entirely replaced by the Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
system approved in 1958
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Simplified Chinese Characters
SIMPLIFIED CHINESE CHARACTERS (简化字; jiǎnhuàzì) are standardized Chinese characters
Chinese characters
prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
Characters for use in mainland China . Along with traditional Chinese characters
Chinese characters
, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language . The government of the People\'s Republic of China
Republic of China
in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are officially used in the People\'s Republic of China
Republic of China
and Singapore
Singapore

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Traditional Chinese Characters
TRADITIONAL CHINESE CHARACTERS (traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字; simplified Chinese : 正体字/繁体字; Pinyin : Zhèngtǐzì/Fántĭzì) are Chinese characters
Chinese characters
in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan
Taiwan
, of Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
or in the Kangxi Dictionary
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