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Characteristic Impedance
The CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE or SURGE IMPEDANCE (usually written Z0) of a uniform transmission line is the ratio of the amplitudes of voltage and current of a single wave propagating along the line; that is, a wave travelling in one direction in the absence of reflections in the other direction. Characteristic impedance
Characteristic impedance
is determined by the geometry and materials of the transmission line and, for a uniform line, is not dependent on its length. The SI unit of characteristic impedance is the ohm . The characteristic impedance of a lossless transmission line is purely real, with no reactive component. Energy supplied by a source at one end of such a line is transmitted through the line without being dissipated in the line itself
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Underground Cable
UNDERGROUNDING is the replacement of overhead cables providing electrical power or telecommunications , with underground cables. This is typically performed for aesthetic purposes, but also serves the additional significant purpose of making the power lines less susceptible to outages during high wind thunderstorms or heavy snow or ice storms. Undergrounding can increase the initial costs of electric power transmission and distribution but may decrease operational costs over the lifetime of the cables. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Comparison * 2.1 Advantages * 2.2 Disadvantages * 3 Japan * 4 Europe * 5 California * 6 Variants * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links HISTORYTelegraph cable undergrounding was considered in Northern Germany as early as 1870. COMPARISONThe aerial cables that carry high-voltage electricity and are supported by large pylons are generally considered an unattractive feature of the countryside
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Ethernet
ETHERNET /ˈiːθərnɛt/ is a family of computer networking technologies commonly used in local area networks (LAN), metropolitan area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (WAN). It was commercially introduced in 1980 and first standardized in 1983 as IEEE 802.3 , and has since been refined to support higher bit rates and longer link distances. Over time, Ethernet
Ethernet
has largely replaced competing wired LAN technologies such as token ring , FDDI and ARCNET . The original 10BASE5 Ethernet
Ethernet
uses coaxial cable as a shared medium , while the newer Ethernet
Ethernet
variants use twisted pair and fiber optic links in conjunction with hubs or switches . Over the course of its history, Ethernet
Ethernet
data transfer rates have been increased from the original 2.94 megabits per second (Mbit/s) to the latest 100 gigabits per second (Gbit/s)
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HDMI
HDMI
HDMI
(HIGH-DEFINITION MULTIMEDIA INTERFACE) is a proprietary audio/video interface for transmitting uncompressed video data and compressed or uncompressed digital audio data from a HDMI-compliant source device, such as a display controller , to a compatible computer monitor , video projector , digital television , or digital audio device. HDMI
HDMI
is a digital replacement for analog video standards. HDMI
HDMI
implements the EIA/ CEA-861 standards, which define video formats and waveforms, transport of compressed, uncompressed, and LPCM audio, auxiliary data, and implementations of the VESA EDID . (p. III) CEA-861 signals carried by HDMI
HDMI
are electrically compatible with the CEA-861 signals used by the digital visual interface (DVI)
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IEEE 1394
IEEE 1394
IEEE 1394
is an interface standard for a serial bus for high-speed communications and isochronous real-time data transfer. It was developed in the late 1980s and early 1990s by Apple , which called it FIREWIRE. The 1394 interface is also known by the brand I.LINK (Sony ), and LYNX ( Texas Instruments
Texas Instruments
). The copper cable it uses in its most common implementation can be up to 4.5 metres (15 ft) long. Power is also carried over this cable allowing devices with moderate power requirements to operate without a separate power supply. FireWire
FireWire
is also available in wireless, Cat 5 , fiber optic , and coaxial versions. The 1394 interface is comparable to USB
USB
though USB
USB
requires a master controller and has greater market share
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Ferranti Effect
In electrical engineering , the FERRANTI EFFECT is an increase in voltage occurring at the receiving end of a long transmission line , above the voltage at the sending end. This occurs when the line is energized, but there is a very light load or the load is disconnected. The capacitive line charging current produces a voltage drop across the line inductance that is in-phase with the sending-end voltage, assuming negligible line resistance. Therefore both line inductance and capacitance are responsible for this phenomenon. Illustration of the Ferranti Effect; addition of voltages across the line inductance The Ferranti Effect will be more pronounced the longer the line and the higher the voltage applied. The relative voltage rise is proportional to the square of the line length. The Ferranti effect is much more pronounced in underground cables, even in short lengths, because of their high capacitance
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Volts
The VOLT (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential , electric potential difference (voltage ), and electromotive force . It is named after the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta (1745–1827). CONTENTS* 1 Definition * 1.1 Josephson junction definition * 2 Water-flow analogy * 3 Common voltages * 4 History * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links DEFINITIONOne volt is defined as the difference in electric potential between two points of a conducting wire when an electric current of one ampere dissipates one watt of power between those points. It is also equal to the potential difference between two parallel, infinite planes spaced 1 meter apart that create an electric field of 1 newton per coulomb . Additionally, it is the potential difference between two points that will impart one joule of energy per coulomb of charge that passes through it
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Dielectric Loss
DIELECTRIC LOSS quantifies a dielectric material 's inherent dissipation of electromagnetic energy (e.g. heat). It can be parameterized in terms of either the LOSS ANGLE δ or the corresponding LOSS TANGENT tan δ. Both refer to the phasor in the complex plane whose real and imaginary parts are the resistive (lossy) component of an electromagnetic field and its reactive (lossless) counterpart. ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD PERSPECTIVEFor time varying electromagnetic fields, the electromagnetic energy is typically viewed as waves propagating either through free space, in a transmission line , in a microstrip line, or through a waveguide . Dielectrics are often used in all of these environments to mechanically support electrical conductors and keep them at a fixed separation, or to provide a barrier between different gas pressures yet still transmit electromagnetic power
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Electric Power Transmission
ELECTRIC POWER TRANSMISSION is the bulk movement of electrical energy from a generating site, such as a power plant , to an electrical substation . The interconnected lines which facilitate this movement are known as a transmission network. This is distinct from the local wiring between high-voltage substations and customers, which is typically referred to as electric power distribution . The combined transmission and distribution network is known as the "power grid " in North America , or just "the grid". In the United Kingdom , the network is known as the "National Grid". A wide area synchronous grid , also known as an "interconnection" in North America, directly connects a large number of generators delivering AC power with the same relative frequency to a large number of consumers
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Reactive Power
POWER in an electric circuit is the rate of flow of energy past a given point of the circuit. In alternating current circuits, energy storage elements such as inductors and capacitors may result in periodic reversals of the direction of energy flow. The portion of power that, averaged over a complete cycle of the AC waveform , results in net transfer of energy in one direction is known as ACTIVE POWER (sometimes also called real power). The portion of power due to stored energy, which returns to the source in each cycle, is known as reactive power. CONTENTS * 1 Active, reactive, and apparent power * 2 Calculations and equations * 3 Power factor * 4 Reactive power * 4.1 Capacitive vs
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DisplayPort
DISPLAYPORT (DP) is a digital display interface developed by a consortium of PC and chip manufacturers and standardized by the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA). The interface is primarily used to connect a video source to a display device such as a computer monitor , and it can also carry audio , USB
USB
, and other forms of data. DisplayPort
DisplayPort
was designed to replace VGA
VGA
, DVI , and FPD-Link
FPD-Link
. The interface is backward compatible with other interfaces, such as HDMI and DVI, through the use of either active or passive adapters
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Digital Visual Interface
DIGITAL VISUAL INTERFACE (DVI) is a video display interface developed by the Digital Display Working Group (DDWG). The digital interface is used to connect a video source, such as a video display controller , to a display device , such as a computer monitor . It was developed with the intention of creating an industry standard for the transfer of digital video content. The interface is designed to transmit uncompressed digital video and can be configured to support multiple modes such as DVI-A (analog only), DVI-D (digital only) or DVI-I (digital and analog). Featuring support for analog connections, the DVI specification is compatible with the VGA
VGA
interface. This compatibility, along with other advantages, led to its widespread acceptance over competing digital display standards Plug and Display (P each link transmits data from the source to the device over one twisted wire pair
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Copyright Status Of Work By The U.S. Government
A WORK OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT, as defined by the United States copyright law , is "a work prepared by an officer or employee" of the federal government "as part of that person's official duties." In general, under section 105 of the Copyright Act, such works are not entitled to domestic copyright protection under U.S. law and are therefore in the public domain . This act only applies to U.S. domestic copyright as that is the extent of U.S. federal law. The U.S. government asserts that it can still hold the copyright to those works in other countries. Publication of an otherwise protected work by the U.S. government does not put that work in the public domain. For example, government publications may include works copyrighted by a contractor or grantee; copyrighted material assigned to the U.S. Government; or copyrighted information from other sources
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General Services Administration
The GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION (GSA), an independent agency of the United States government , was established in 1949 to help manage and support the basic functioning of federal agencies. GSA supplies products and communications for U.S. government offices, provides transportation and office space to federal employees, and develops government-wide cost-minimizing policies and other management tasks. GSA employs about 12,000 federal workers and has an annual operating budget of roughly $26.3 billion. GSA oversees $66 billion of procurement annually. It contributes to the management of about $500 billion in U.S. federal property, divided chiefly among 8,300 owned and leased buildings and a 210,000 vehicle motor pool
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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