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Channar Lahala
The Channar Lahala or Channar revolt, also called Maru Marakkal Samaram,[1] refers to the fight from 1813 to 1859 of Nadar climber women in Travancore
Travancore
kingdom for the right to wear upper-body clothes to cover their breasts. This right was previously reserved for Nair women, who were higher-class Hindu women.Contents1 Background 2 1813-1829 grants and withdrawals 3 1859 proclamation 4 Further emancipation 5 Controversy 6 See also 7 References 8 SourcesBackground[edit] In 19th century Travancore
Travancore
lower-class women were not allowed to wear clothes that covered their breasts. Baring of chest to higher status was considered a sign of respect, by both males and females.[2][3] Higher-class women covered both breasts and shoulders,[1] whereas Nadar climber
Nadar climber
women were not allowed to cover their bosoms, as most of the non-Brahmin women, to punctuate their low status
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C. V. Kunhiraman
C.V. Kunhuraman (1871 – 1949) was a man of letters, social reformer, founder of Kerala Kaumudi, journalist and leader. He was a follower of Sree Narayana Guru.[1]Contents1 Career 2 Founding Kerala Kaumudi 3 Contribution to other publications and dailies 4 References 5 External linksCareer[edit] Kunhiraman opened his journalistic career in Sujananadini,published by Paravoor Kesavanasan from Paravoor, Kollam. He began contributing poems and articles on Sujananandini. His early writings were more on social affairs. Later, he became the sub-editor. He started a school for low caste Hindus at Vellamanal, Mayyanad, Quilon and became its headmaster. An activist in the SNDP
SNDP
Yogam, he was elected its general secretary in 1928 and 1931. Valmiki Ramayanam, a prose rendering of the great epic, was his first work to come out in print, in 1901
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V. T. Bhattathiripad
Vellithuruthi Thazhathu Karutha Patteri Raman Bhattathiripad (1896-1982), popularly known as V. T. Bhattathiripad
V. T. Bhattathiripad
or simply V. T., was an Indian social critic, well-known dramatist and a prominent freedom fighter who was a key figure in removing casteism and conservatism that existed in the Namboothiri
Namboothiri
community.[1] Bhattathiripad was born on March 26, 1896 to Thuppan Bhattathiripad and Sridevi Andarjanam in Kaippilly Mana at Mezhathur on the banks of river Nila in south Malabar. He belonged to the family of Agnihothri on his father's side and had the lineage of Adi Sankara
Adi Sankara
on his mother's side. He encouraged widow marriage in the Brahmin society and tried to reform the conservative practices of the "Namboodiri community in particular and the society at large.".[2] He conducted the first mixed-race marriage in the Brahmin society
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Missionaries
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.[1][2] The word "mission" originates from 1598 when the Jesuits
Jesuits
sent members abroad, derived from the Latin missionem (nom. missio), meaning "act of sending" or mittere, meaning "to send".[3] The word was used in light of its biblical usage; in the Latin translation of the Bible, Christ uses the word when sending the disciples to preach The gospel in his name
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Ezhava
The Ezhavas are a community with origins in the region of India presently known as Kerala. They are also known as Ilhava, Irava, Izhava and Erava in the south of the region; as Chovas, Chokons and Chogons in Central Travancore; and as Thiyyas, Tiyyas and Theeyas in the Malabar region.[1][2][3] Some are also known as Thandan, which has caused administrative difficulties due to the presence of a distinct caste of Thandan in the same region.[4][5] The Malabar Thiyya group have claimed a higher ranking in the Hindu
Hindu
caste system than do the others, although from the perspective of the colonial and subsequent administrations they were treated as being of similar rank.[1][6] As well as being agricultural labourers, small cultivators, toddy tappers and liquor businessmen, some Ezhavas were also involved in weaving and some practised ayurveda
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Nair Service Society
The Nair
Nair
Service Society (NSS) is an organisation created for the social advancement and welfare of the Nair
Nair
community that is found primarily in the state of Kerala
Kerala
in South India
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Sree Narayana Trust
Sree Narayana Trust, also known as the SN Trust , has been an educational organisation in the Indian state of Kerala
Kerala
since 1952. The headquarters of Sree Narayana Trust
Sree Narayana Trust
is in Kollam
Kollam
city.[1] It is named after Sree Narayana Guru. The institutions operated by the Trust follow his footsteps, trying to create strength through organisation and to seek liberation through education. The Trust aims to realize the high ideals of its namesake, who professed the welfare of all without any discrimination on the basis of caste, creed or religion. It was formed by a former Chief Minister of Kerala, R. Sankar,[2] in 1952 to manage the Sree Narayana College, Kollam. Later, educational institutions were started in other parts of Kerala
Kerala
for the upliftment of the socially and educationally backward sections of society
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E. M. S. Namboodiripad
Elamkulam Manakkal Sankaran Namboodiripad (13 June 1909 – 19 March 1998), popularly EMS, was an Indian communist politician and theorist, who served as the first Chief Minister of Kerala
Chief Minister of Kerala
state in 1957–59 and then again in 1967–69. As a member of the Communist Party of India
India
(CPI), he became the first non- Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
chief minister in the Indian republic. In 1964, he led a faction of the CPI that broke away to form the Communist Party of India (Marxist)
Communist Party of India (Marxist)
(CPM). He completed his graduation from St.Thomas College, Thrissur As chief minister, EMS pioneered radical land and educational reforms in Kerala, which helped it become the country's leader in social indicators
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C. V. Raman Pillai
Pillai may refer to: Pillai (Kerala title), a title used in Kerala Pillai of Pallichal, a title of the order of nobility in Travancore Pillai (community), a community from the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka Pillai (surname) Pilai, a Finnish bagpipe The Pillai statistic used in multivariate statistics, named after K. C
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Caste System In Kerala
The caste system in Kerala
Kerala
differed from that found in the rest of India. While the Indian caste system
Indian caste system
generally modelled the four-fold division of society into Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras, in Kerala
Kerala
the Nambudiri
Nambudiri
Brahmins formed the priestly class and only rarely recognised anyone else as being other than Shudra
Shudra
or untouchables outside the caste system entirely
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Kumaran Asan
N. Kumaran Ashan (12 April 1873 – 16 January 1924), also known as Mahakavi Kumaran Ashan (the prefix Mahakavi, awarded by Madras University in 1922, means "great poet" and the suffix Ashan means "scholar" or "teacher"), was one of the triumvirate poets of Kerala, South India.[1] He was also a philosopher, a social reformer and a disciple of Sree Narayana Guru.[2][3] Kumaran Ashan initiated a revolution in Malayalam
Malayalam
poetry in the first quarter of the 20th century, transforming it from the metaphysical to the lyrical. Deep moral and spiritual commitment is evident in Ashan's poetry
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Saint Thomas Christians
Vernacular: Malayalam Liturgical: Syriac (Aramaic)[3]ReligionChristianSaint Thomas Christian
Christian
ChurchesSyro-Malabar Catholic Church Syro-Malankara Catholic Church Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church Malankara Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Church Malabar Independent Syrian Church Chaldean Syrian Church St
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G. P. Pillai
Govindan Parameswaran Pillai, of Pallipuram (1864–1903), commonly known as Barrister G. P. Pillai, was born in Pallippuram, Thiruvananthapuram, India, in an aristocratic Nair
Nair
family.[1] After gaining a B.A. at the Madras Presidency College[2] he was admitted to the Middle Temple
Middle Temple
in London
London
in 1898, where he was called to the bar in 1902.[3] He later established the first English language newspaper in South India, The Madras Standard. He played a major role in the formation of Malayali Memorial in 1891. Participation in Indian freedom struggle[edit] The formation of the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
in 1885 led to increased agitation for Indian independence from British rule. G. P. Pillai was the earliest leader of the organisation from Kerala, and twice served as its General Secretary
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Chempakaraman Pillai
Chempakaraman Pillai, alias Venkat, was an Indian-born political activist and revolutionary.[1] Pillai lived in Germany
Germany
for most of his active years, and died in Berlin
Berlin
in 1934.Contents1 Early life 2 In Europe 3 War activities 4 Foreign Minister of Provisional Government of India 5 Marriage and death 6 References 7 External linksEarly life[edit] Pillai was born into a Tamil family in Trivandrum, capital of the former kingdom of Travancore
Travancore
in the modern state of Kerala. He was the son of Chinnaswami Pillai and Nagammal. He had a sister named Paappaathi Ammal. She married a sculptor named Chatrapathi Pillai, whose sculpture, Kuravan Kurathi, is in the Trivandrum
Trivandrum
Museum. Paappaathi Ammal had four daughters, one of whom still resides in Trivandrum.[citation needed] In Europe[edit] Pillai attended a technical institute, pursuing a diploma in Engineering
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Sir Charles Trevelyan, 1st Baronet
Sir Charles Edward Trevelyan, 1st Baronet, KCB (2 April 1807 – 19 June 1886) was a British civil servant and colonial administrator. As a young man, he worked with the colonial government in Calcutta, India; in the late 1850s and 1860s he served there in senior-level appointments. A century and a half later, Trevelyan continues to divide opinion. It has been said that:Trevelyan's most enduring mark on history may be the quasi-genocidal anti-Irish racial sentiment he expressed during his term in the critical position of administrating relief for the millions of Irish peasants suffering under the Irish famine as Assistant Secretary to HM Treasury (1840–1859) under the Whig administration of Lord Russell.[1]On the other side, the BBC's Historic Figures webpage states:His most lasting contribution, however, began in the 1850s with the publication of his and Sir Stafford Northcote's report on 'The Organisation of the Permanent Civil Service'
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Swadeshabhimani Ramakrishna Pillai
K. Ramakrishna Pillai (1878–1916) was a nationalist writer, journalist, editor, and political activist.[1][2] He edited Swadeshabhimani (The Patriot), the newspaper which became a potent weapon against the rule of the British and the erstwhile princely state of Travancore
Travancore
(Kerala, India) and a tool for social transformation. His criticism of the Diwan of Travancore, P. Rajagopalachari and the Maharajah
Maharajah
led to the eventual confiscation of the newspaper
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