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Chalkidiki
CHALCIDICE or CHALKIDIKE or CHALKIDIKI or HALKIDIKI (Greek : Χαλκιδική ), is a peninsula and regional unit of Greece
Greece
, part of the Region of Central Macedonia
Central Macedonia
in Northern Greece
Greece
. The autonomous Mount Athos
Mount Athos
region constitutes the easternmost part of the peninsula, but not of the regional unit. The capital of Chalkidiki
Chalkidiki
is the main town of Polygyros , located in the centre of the peninsula. Chalkidiki
Chalkidiki
today is a popular summer tourist destination. Aristotle
Aristotle
was born here in 384 BC
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Macedonian Wars
The MACEDONIAN WARS (214–148 BC) were a series of conflicts fought by the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and its Greek allies in the eastern Mediterranean
Mediterranean
against several different major Greek kingdoms. They resulted in Roman control or influence over the eastern Mediterranean basin, in addition to their hegemony in the western Mediterranean after the Punic Wars
Punic Wars
. Traditionally, the "Macedonian Wars" include the four wars with Macedonia , in addition to one war with the Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
, and a final minor war with the Achaean League (which is often considered to be the final stage of the final Macedonian war)
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Macedonia (ancient Kingdom)
MACEDONIA or MACEDON (/ˈmæsɪˌdɒn/ , Ancient: , Greek : Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece
Classical Greece
, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece . The kingdom was founded and initially ruled by the royal Argead dynasty
Argead dynasty
, which was followed by the Antipatrid and Antigonid dynasties. Home to the ancient Macedonians , the earliest kingdom was centered on the northeastern part of the Greek peninsula , and bordered by Epirus
Epirus
to the west, Paeonia to the north, Thrace
Thrace
to the east and Thessaly
Thessaly
to the south
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Chalkis
CHALCIS (/ˈkælsɪs/ ; Ancient Greek "> View of the Roman aqueduct The earliest recorded mention of Chalcis
Chalcis
is in the Iliad
Iliad
, where it is mentioned in the same line as its rival Eretria
Eretria
. It is also documented that the ships set for the Trojan War
Trojan War
gathered at Aulis, the south bank of the strait nearby the city. Chamber tombs at Trypa and Vromousa dated to the Mycenaean period were excavated by Papavasiliou in 1910. In the 8th and 7th centuries BC, colonists from Chalcis
Chalcis
founded thirty townships on the peninsula of Chalcidice
Chalcidice
and several important cities in Magna Graecia , such as Naxos , Rhegion and Cumae
Cumae

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Roman Empire
Mediolanum (286–402, Western ) Augusta Treverorum
Augusta Treverorum
Sirmium
Sirmium

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Byzantine Empire
The BYZANTINE EMPIRE, also referred to as the EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul
Istanbul
, which had been founded as Byzantium
Byzantium
). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
Europe

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Chrysobull
A GOLDEN BULL or CHRYSOBULL was a decree issued by Byzantine Emperors and later by monarchs in Europe during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and Renaissance , most notably by the Holy Roman Emperors
Holy Roman Emperors
. The term was originally coined for the golden seal (a bulla aurea), attached to the decree, but came to be applied to the entire decree. Such decrees were known as golden bulls in western Europe and chrysobullos logos, or chrysobulls, in the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
(χρυσός, chrysos, being Greek for gold ). For nearly eight hundred years, they were issued unilaterally, without obligations on the part of the other party or parties. However, this eventually proved disadvantageous as the Byzantines sought to restrain the efforts of foreign powers to undermine the empire
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Classical Athens
The city of ATHENS ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Ἀθῆναι, Athênai, modern pronunciation Athínai) during the classical period of Ancient Greece (508–322 BC) was the major urban center of the notable polis (city-state ) of the same name, located in Attica
Attica
, Greece , leading the Delian League in the Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
against Sparta
Sparta
and the Peloponnesian League . Athenian democracy
Athenian democracy
was established in 508 BC under Cleisthenes
Cleisthenes
following the tyranny of Isagoras . This system remained remarkably stable, and with a few brief interruptions remained in place for 180 years, until 322 BC (aftermath of Lamian War )
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History Of Macedonia (ancient Kingdom)
The kingdom of Macedonia was an ancient state in what is now the Macedonian region of northern Greece
Greece
, founded in the mid-7th century BC during the period of Archaic Greece
Archaic Greece
and lasting until the mid-2nd century BC. Led first by the Argead dynasty
Argead dynasty
of kings, Macedonia became a vassal state of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
of ancient Persia
Persia
during the reigns of Amyntas I of Macedon (r. 547–498 BC) and his son Alexander I of Macedon
Alexander I of Macedon
(r. 498–454 BC). The period of Achaemenid Macedonia came to an end in roughly 479 BC with the ultimate Greek victory against the second Persian invasion of Greece
Greece
led by Darius I of Persia
Persia
and the withdrawal of Persian forces from the European mainland
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Philip II Of Macedon
PHILIP II OF MACEDON (Greek : Φίλιππος Β΄ ὁ Μακεδών, Phílippos II ho Makedṓn; 382–336 BC) was the king ( Basileus
Basileus
) of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon from 359 BC until his assassination in 336 BC. He was a member of the Argead dynasty
Argead dynasty
of Macedonian kings , the third son of King Amyntas III , and father of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
and Philip III . The rise of Macedon during the reign of Philip II was achieved in part by his reformation of the Ancient Macedonian army
Ancient Macedonian army
, establishing the Macedonian phalanx that proved critical in securing victories on the battlefield
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Sparta
Coordinates : 37°4′55″N 22°25′25″E / 37.08194°N 22.42361°E / 37.08194; 22.42361 Lacedaemon Σπάρτα / Λακεδαίμων 900S–192 BC Lambda was used by the Spartan army as a symbol of Lacedaemon (Λακεδαίμων) Territory of ancient Sparta
Sparta
CAPITAL Sparta LANGUAGES Doric Greek
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Scione
SCIONE ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Σκιώνη) was an ancient Greek city in Pallene , the westernmost headland of Chalcidice, on the southern coast east of the modern town of Nea Skioni
Nea Skioni
. Scione was founded c. 700 BC by settlers from Achaea ; the Scionaeans claimed their ancestors settled the place when their ships were blown there by the storm that caught the Achaeans on their way back from Troy
Troy
. It "was situated on one summit of a two-crested hill and on the slopes toward the sea..
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Peloponnesian War
The PELOPONNESIAN WAR (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek war fought by the Delian League led by Athens against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta
Sparta
. Historians have traditionally divided the war into three phases. In the first phase, the Archidamian War, Sparta
Sparta
launched repeated invasions of Attica
Attica
, while Athens took advantage of its naval supremacy to raid the coast of the Peloponnese
Peloponnese
and attempt to suppress signs of unrest in its empire. This period of the war was concluded in 421 BC, with the signing of the Peace of Nicias
Nicias
. That treaty, however, was soon undermined by renewed fighting in the Peloponnese. In 415 BC, Athens dispatched a massive expeditionary force to attack Syracuse in Sicily
Sicily
; the attack failed disastrously, with the destruction of the entire force, in 413 BC
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Euboea
EUBOEA or EVIA (/juːˈbiːə/ ; Greek : Εύβοια, Evvoia, pronounced ; Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Εὔβοια, Eúboia, ) is the second-largest Greek island in area and population, after Crete
Crete
. The narrow Euripus Strait separates it from Boeotia
Boeotia
in mainland Greece
Greece
. In general outline it is a long and narrow island; it is about 180 kilometres (110 mi) long, and varies in breadth from 50 kilometres (31 mi) to 6 kilometres (3.7 mi). Its geographic orientation is from northwest to southeast, and it is traversed throughout its length by a mountain range, which forms part of the chain that bounds Thessaly
Thessaly
on the east, and is continued south of Euboea
Euboea
in the lofty islands of Andros
Andros
, Tinos and Mykonos
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Eretria
ERETRIA (/əˈriːtriə/ ; Greek : Ερέτρια, Eretria, literally "city of the rowers") is a town in Euboea
Euboea
, Greece
Greece
, facing the coast of Attica
Attica
across the narrow South Euboean Gulf . It was an important Greek polis in the 6th/5th century BC, mentioned by many famous writers and actively involved in significant historical events. Excavations of the ancient city began in the 1890s and have been conducted since 1964 by the Greek Archaeological Service (11th Ephorate of Antiquities) and the Swiss School of Archaeology in Greece
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UNESCO World Heritage Site
A WORLD HERITAGE SITE is a landmark or area which has been officially recognized by the United Nations , specifically by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO ). Sites are selected on the basis of having cultural, historical, scientific or some other form of significance, and they are legally protected by international treaties. UNESCO regards these sites as being important to the collective interests of humanity
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