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Chalkidiki
Chalcidice or Chalkidike or Chalkidiki
Chalkidiki
or Halkidiki (Greek: Χαλκιδική, Chalkidikí, [xalciðiˈci]), is a peninsula and regional unit of Greece, part of the Region of Central Macedonia
Central Macedonia
in Northern Greece. The autonomous Mount Athos
Mount Athos
region constitutes the easternmost part of the peninsula, but not of the regional unit
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Great Lavra (Athos)
The Monastery
Monastery
of Great Lavra
Lavra
(Greek: Μονή Μεγίστης Λαύρας) is the first monastery built on Mount Athos. It is located on the southeastern foot of the Mount at an elevation of 160 metres. The founding of the monastery in AD 963 by Athanasius the Athonite marks the beginning of the organized monastic life at Mount Athos. At the location of the monastery, there was one of the ancient cities of the Athos peninsula, perhaps Akrothooi, from which the sarcophagi of the monastery that are in the oil storage house come. The history of the monastery is the most complete compared to the history of the other monasteries, because its historical archives were preserved almost intact
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Sparta
Coordinates: 37°4′55″N 22°25′25″E / 37.08194°N 22.42361°E / 37.08194; 22.42361LacedaemonΣπάρτα / Λακεδαίμων900s–192 BCLambda was used by the Spartan army
Spartan army
as a symbol of Lacedaemon (Λακεδαίμων)Territory of ancient SpartaCapital SpartaLanguages Doric GreekReligion Greek polytheismGovernment Diarchy OligarchyKing See listLegislature GerousiaHistorical era Classical antiquity •  Foundation 900s BC •  Messenian War 685–668 BC •  Battle of Thermopylae 480 BC •  Peloponnesian War 431–404 BC •  Battle of Mantinea 362 BC •  Annexed by Achaea 192 BCPreceded by Succeeded byGreek Dark AgesAchaean LeagueRoman RepublicThis article contains special characters. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols.Hollow Lacedaemon
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UNESCO World Heritage Site
A World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity. To be selected, a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
must be an already classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and historically identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance (such as an ancient ruin or historical structure, building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, mountain, or wilderness area)
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Chalcis
Chalcis
Chalcis
(/ˈkælsɪs/;[3] Ancient Greek & Katharevousa: Χαλκίς, Chalkís) or Chalkida (Modern Greek: Χαλκίδα, [xalˈciða]) is the chief town of the island of Euboea
Euboea
in Greece, situated on the Euripus Strait
Euripus Strait
at its narrowest point
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Eretria
Eretria
Eretria
(/əˈriːtriə/; Greek: Ερέτρια, Eretria, literally "city of the rowers") is a town in Euboea, Greece, facing the coast of Attica
Attica
across the narrow South Euboean Gulf. It was an important Greek polis in the 6th/5th century BC, mentioned by many famous writers and actively involved in significant historical events
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Euboea
Euboea or Evia[1] (/juːˈbiːə/; Greek: Εύβοια, Evvoia, pronounced [ˈevia]; Ancient Greek: Εὔβοια, Eúboia, [eúboja]) is the second-largest Greek island in area and population, after Crete. The narrow Euripus Strait separates it from Boeotia in mainland Greece. In general outline it is a long and narrow island; it is about 180 kilometres (110 mi) long, and varies in breadth from 50 kilometres (31 mi) to 6 kilometres (3.7 mi)
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Scione
Scione (Ancient Greek: Σκιώνη) was an ancient Greek city in Pallene, the westernmost headland of Chalcidice, on the southern coast east of the modern town of Nea Skioni.[1] Scione was founded c. 700 BC by settlers from Achaea;[2] the Scionaeans claimed their ancestors settled the place when their ships were blown there by the storm that caught the Achaeans on their way back from Troy.[3] It "was situated on one summit of a two-crested hill and on the slopes toward the sea..
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Peloponnesian War
The Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
(431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek war fought by the Delian League
Delian League
led by Athens against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta. Historians have traditionally divided the war into three phases. In the first phase, the Archidamian War, Sparta
Sparta
launched repeated invasions of Attica, while Athens took advantage of its naval supremacy to raid the coast of the Peloponnese
Peloponnese
and attempt to suppress signs of unrest in its empire. This period of the war was concluded in 421 BC, with the signing of the Peace of Nicias. That treaty, however, was soon undermined by renewed fighting in the Peloponnese. In 415 BC, Athens dispatched a massive expeditionary force to attack Syracuse in Sicily; the attack failed disastrously, with the destruction of the entire force, in 413 BC
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Classical Athens
The city of Athens
Athens
(Ancient Greek: Ἀθῆναι, Athênai, modern pronunciation Athínai) during the classical period of Ancient Greece (508–322 BC)[1] was the major urban center of the notable polis (city-state) of the same name, located in Attica, Greece, leading the Delian League
Delian League
in the Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
against Sparta
Sparta
and the Peloponnesian League. Athenian democracy
Athenian democracy
was established in 508 BC under Cleisthenes
Cleisthenes
following the tyranny of Isagoras. This system remained remarkably stable, and with a few brief interruptions remained in place for 180 years, until 322 BC (aftermath of Lamian War)
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Philip II Of Macedon
Philip II of Macedon[2] (Greek: Φίλιππος Β΄ ὁ Μακεδών, Phílippos II ho Makedṓn; 382–336 BC) was the king (basileus) of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon
Macedon
from 359 BC until his assassination in 336 BC. He was a member of the Argead dynasty of Macedonian kings, the third son of King Amyntas III of Macedon, and father of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
and Philip III. The rise of Macedon
Macedon
during the reign of Philip II was achieved in part by his reformation of the Ancient Macedonian army, establishing the Macedonian phalanx
Macedonian phalanx
that proved critical in securing victories on the battlefield
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Macedonia (ancient Kingdom)
Macedonia (/ˌmæsɪˈdoʊniə/ ( listen)) or Macedon (/ˈmæsɪˌdɒn/; Greek: Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece,[4] and later the dominant state of Hellenistic
Hellenistic
Greece.[5] The kingdom was founded and initially ruled by the royal Argead dynasty, which was followed by the Antipatrid and Antigonid dynasties
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Macedonian Wars
The Macedonian Wars
Macedonian Wars
(214–148 BC) were a series of conflicts fought by the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and its Greek allies in the eastern Mediterranean
Mediterranean
against several different major Greek kingdoms. They resulted in Roman control or influence over the eastern Mediterranean basin, in addition to their hegemony in the western Mediterranean after the Punic Wars. Traditionally, the "Macedonian Wars" include the four wars with Macedonia, in addition to one war with the Seleucid Empire, and a final minor war with the Achaean League
Achaean League
(which is often considered to be the final stage of the final Macedonian war)
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum
Mediolanum
(286–402, Western) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna
Ravenna
(402–476, Western) Nicomedia
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Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.[2] During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
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