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Chalk
CHALK ( /ˈtʃɔːk/ ) is a soft, white, porous, sedimentary carbonate rock , a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite . Calcite is an ionic salt called calcium carbonate or CaCO3. It forms under reasonably deep marine conditions from the gradual accumulation of minute calcite shells (coccoliths ) shed from micro-organisms called coccolithophores . Flint (a type of chert) is very common as bands parallel to the bedding or as nodules embedded in chalk. It is probably derived from sponge spicules or other siliceous organisms as water is expelled upwards during compaction. Flint is often deposited around larger fossils such as Echinoidea which may be silicified (i.e. replaced molecule by molecule by flint). Chalk as seen in Cretaceous deposits of Western Europe is unusual among sedimentary limestones in the thickness of the beds
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Negev
The NEGEV (Hebrew : הַנֶּגֶב‎, Tiberian vocalization
Tiberian vocalization
: han-Néḡeḇ ; Arabic : النقب‎‎ an-Naqab) is a desert and semidesert region of southern Israel
Israel
. The region's largest city and administrative capital is Beersheba (pop. 203,604), in the north. At its southern end is the Gulf of Aqaba and the resort city of Eilat . It contains several development towns , including Dimona , Arad and Mitzpe Ramon , as well as a number of small Bedouin cities, including Rahat and Tel as-Sabi and Lakyah. There are also several kibbutzim , including Revivim and Sde Boker ; the latter became the home of Israel's first Prime Minister , David Ben-Gurion
David Ben-Gurion
, after his retirement from politics
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Israel
Coordinates : 31°N 35°E / 31°N 35°E / 31; 35 State of Israel * מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל (Hebrew ) * دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل (Arabic ) Flag Emblem ANTHEM: " Hatikvah " (Hebrew for "The Hope") (pre-) 1967 border (Green Line ) Capital and largest city Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(limited recognition ) 31°47′N 35°13′E / 31.783°N 35.217°E / 31.783; 35.217 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES * Hebrew *
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Silicification
Other uses: "Petrified" redirects here. For other uses, see Petrified (other) . Petrified wood In geology , PETRIFACTION or PETRIFICATION is the process by which organic material becomes a fossil through the replacement of the original material and the filling of the original pore spaces with minerals . Petrified wood typifies this process, but all organisms, from bacteria to vertebrates, can become petrified (although harder, more durable matter such as bone, beaks, and shells survive the process better than softer remains such as muscle tissue, feathers, or skin). Petrification takes place through a combination of two similar processes: permineralization and replacement. These processes create replicas of the original specimen that are similar down to the microscopic level
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Brick
A BRICK is building material used to make walls, pavements and other elements in masonry construction. Traditionally, the term brick referred to a unit composed of clay , but it is now used to denote any rectangular units laid in mortar. A brick can be composed of clay-bearing soil, sand, and lime, or concrete materials. Bricks are produced in numerous classes, types, materials, and sizes which vary with region and time period, and are produced in bulk quantities. Two basic categories of bricks are fired and non-fired bricks. Block is a similar term referring to a rectangular building unit composed of similar materials, but is usually larger than a brick. Lightweight bricks (also called lightweight blocks) are made from expanded clay aggregate . Fired bricks are one of the longest-lasting and strongest building materials , sometimes referred to as artificial stone, and have been used since circa 5000 BC
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Fossil
A FOSSIL (from Classical Latin
Latin
fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age . Examples include bones, shells, exoskeletons , stone imprints of animals or microbes , hair, petrified wood , oil, coal, and DNA
DNA
remnants. The totality of fossils is known as the fossil record. Paleontology
Paleontology
is the study of fossils: their age, method of formation, and evolutionary significance. Specimens are usually considered to be fossils if they are over 10,000 years old. The oldest fossils are from around 3.48 billion years old to 4.1 billion years old. The observation in the 19th century that certain fossils were associated with certain rock strata led to the recognition of a geological timescale and the relative ages of different fossils
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Mesozoic
The MESOZOIC ERA ( /ˌmɛsəˈzoʊɪk, ˌmiː-, -soʊ-/ or /ˌmɛzəˈzoʊɪk, ˌmiː-, -soʊ-/ ) is an interval of geological time from about 252 to 66 million years ago. It is also called the AGE OF REPTILES, a phrase introduced by the 19th century paleontologist Gideon Mantell who viewed it as dominated by diapsids such as Iguanodon , Megalosaurus , Plesiosaurus and Pterodactylus . This Era is also called from a paleobotanist view the AGE OF CONIFERS. Mesozoic
Mesozoic
means "middle life", deriving from the Greek prefix meso-/μεσο- for "between" and zōon/ζῷον meaning "animal " or "living being". It is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon , preceded by the Paleozoic ("ancient life") and succeeded by the Cenozoic
Cenozoic
("new life")
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Tethys Ocean
The TETHYS OCEAN (Ancient Greek: Τηθύς), TETHYS SEA or NEOTETHYS was an ocean during much of the Mesozoic era located between the ancient continents of Gondwana and Laurasia
Laurasia
, before the opening of the Indian and Atlantic oceans during the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period
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Ground Water
GROUNDWATER is the water present beneath Earth
Earth
's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations . A unit of rock or an unconsolidated deposit is called an aquifer when it can yield a usable quantity of water. The depth at which soil pore spaces or fractures and voids in rock become completely saturated with water is called the water table . Groundwater
Groundwater
is recharged from, and eventually flows to, the surface naturally; natural discharge often occurs at springs and seeps , and can form oases or wetlands . Groundwater
Groundwater
is also often withdrawn for agricultural , municipal , and industrial use by constructing and operating extraction wells . The study of the distribution and movement of groundwater is hydrogeology , also called groundwater hydrology
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Underground Mining (hard Rock)
UNDERGROUND HARD ROCK MINING refers to various underground mining techniques used to excavate hard minerals , usually those containing metals such as ore containing gold , silver , iron , copper , zinc , nickel , tin and lead , but also involves using the same techniques for excavating ores of gems such as diamonds . Soft rock mining refers to excavation of softer minerals such as salt , coal , or oil sands . CONTENTS* 1 Mine access * 1.1 Underground access * 1.2 Ore
Ore
access * 2 Development mining vs. production mining * 3 Ventilation * 4 Ground support * 4.1 Area ground support * 4.1.1 Mechanical bolts * 4.1.2 Grouted bolts * 4.1.3 Friction bolts * 4.2 Local ground support * 5 Stope and retreat vs
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Industrial Revolution
The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines , new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, improved efficiency of water power , the increasing use of steam power , the development of machine tools and the rise of the factory system . Textiles were the dominant industry of the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
in terms of employment, value of output and capital invested; the textile industry was also the first to use modern production methods. The Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
began in Great Britain
Great Britain
and most of the important technological innovations were British. Laws also shaped the revolution, such as courts ruling in favor of property rights
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Hill
A HILL is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain. It often has a distinct summit , although in areas with scarp/dip topography a hill may refer to a particular section of flat terrain without a massive summit (e.g. Box Hill, Surrey ). CONTENTS * 1 Terminology * 2 Historical significance * 3 Military significance * 4 Sports and games * 5 Largest man-made * 6 Gallery * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links TERMINOLOGY Chocolate Hills of the Philippines Hills in Tuscany , Italy The distinction between a hill and a mountain is unclear and largely subjective, but a hill is universally considered to be less tall and less steep than a mountain
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Clay
CLAY is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with traces of metal oxides and organic matter . Geologic clay deposits are mostly composed of phyllosilicate minerals containing variable amounts of water trapped in the mineral structure. Clays are plastic due to their water content and become hard, brittle and non–plastic upon drying or firing . Depending on the soil\'s content in which it is found, clay can appear in various colours from white to dull grey or brown to deep orange-red. Electron microscope photograph of smectite clay – magnification 23,500 Although many naturally occurring deposits include both silts and clay, clays are distinguished from other fine-grained soils by differences in size and mineralogy. Silts , which are fine-grained soils that do not include clay minerals, tend to have larger particle sizes than clays. There is, however, some overlap in particle size and other physical properties
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Meudon
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. MEUDON (French pronunciation: ​ ) is a municipality in the southwestern suburbs of Paris
Paris
, France. It is in the département of Hauts-de-Seine. It is located 9.1 km (5.7 mi) from the center of Paris
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