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Chalcedonian
Chalcedonian Christianity
Christianity
is the Christian denominations adhering to christological definitions and ecclesiological resolutions of the Council of Chalcedon, the Fourth Ecumenical Council held in 451.[1] Chalcedonian Christians follow the Definition of Chalcedon, a religious doctrine concerning the divine and human natures of Jesus Christ
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Criticism Of Christianity
Criticism of Christianity
Christianity
has a long history stretching back to the initial formation of the religion during the Roman Empire. Critics have attacked Christian
Christian
beliefs and teachings as well as Christian actions, from the Crusades
Crusades
to modern terrorism. The intellectual arguments against Christianity
Christianity
include the suppositions that it is a faith of violence, corruption, superstition, polytheism, and bigotry. In the early years of Christianity, the Neoplatonic philosopher Porphyry emerged as one of the major critics with his book Against the Christians
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Mary, Mother Of Jesus
Mary (Greek: Μαρία, translit. María; Aramaic: ܡܪܝܡ‎, translit. Mariam; Hebrew: מִרְיָם‎, translit. Miriam; Coptic: Ⲙⲁⲣⲓⲁ; Arabic: مريم‎, translit. Maryam), also known by various titles, styles and honorifics, was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish[2] woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament[3][4][5][6] and the Quran.[7][8] The gospels of Matthew and Luke in the New Testament
New Testament
and the Quran describe Mary as a virgin (Greek: παρθένος, translit. parthénos)[9] and many[which?] Christians believe that she conceived her son while a virgin by the Holy Spirit
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Jesus
Jesus[e] (c. 4 BC – c. AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth
Nazareth
and Jesus
Jesus
Christ,[f] was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.[12] He is the central figure of Christianity
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Christian Art
Christian art
Christian art
is sacred art which uses themes and imagery from Christianity. Most Christian groups use or have used art to some extent, although some have had strong objections to some forms of religious image, and there have been major periods of iconoclasm within Christianity. Images of Jesus
Jesus
and narrative scenes from the Life of Christ are the most common subjects, and scenes from the Old Testament
Old Testament
play a part in the art of most denominations. Images of the Virgin Mary and saints are much rarer in Protestant art than that of Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy. Christianity
Christianity
makes far wider use of images than related religions, in which figurative representations are forbidden, such as Islam and Judaism
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Christian Mission
A Christian mission
Christian mission
is an organized effort to spread Christianity.[1] Missions often involve sending individuals and groups, called missionaries, across boundaries, most commonly geographical boundaries, for the purpose of proselytism (conversion to Christianity, or from one Christian tradition to another). This involves evangelism (preaching a set of beliefs for the purpose of conversion), and humanitarian work, especially among the poor and disadvantaged. There are a few different kinds of mission trips: short-term, long-term, relational and ones meant simply for helping people in need. Some might choose to dedicate their whole lives to missions as well. Missionaries have the authority to preach the Christian faith (and sometimes to administer sacraments), and provide humanitarian work to improve economic development, literacy, education, health care, and orphanages
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Patriology
In Christian
Christian
theology, term Patriology
Patriology
refers to the study of the God the Father. The word Patriology
Patriology
comes from two Greek words: πατέρας (pateras, father) and λογος (logos, teaching about). As a theological discipline, Patriology
Patriology
is closely connected to Christology
Christology
(study of Christ
Christ
as God the Son) and Pneumatology (study of Holy Ghost as God the Spirit). The term Patriology
Patriology
should not be confused with similar term Patrology that involves the study of teachings of the Church Fathers. There are three basic forms of the name of God the Father
God the Father
in the New Testament: Theos (θεός the Greek woed for God), Kyrios
Kyrios
(i.e. Lord in Greek) and Pateras (πατέρας i.e
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Pneumatology (Christianity)
Pneumatology in Christianity
Christianity
refers to a particular discipline within Christian theology
Christian theology
that focuses on the study of the Holy Spirit. The term is essentially derived from the Greek word Pneuma (πνεῦμα), which designates "breath" or "spirit" and metaphorically describes a non-material being or influence. The English term pneumatology comes from two Greek words: πνευμα (pneuma, spirit) and λογος (logos, teaching about)
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Salvation In Christianity
Salvation
Salvation
in Christianity, or deliverance, is the saving of the soul from sin and its consequences.[1] Variant views on salvation are among the main fault lines dividing the various Christian denominations, being a point of disagreement between Eastern Orthodoxy, Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholicism
and Protestantism, as well as within Protestantism, notably in the Calvinist–Arminian debate
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History Of Christianity
The history of Christianity
Christianity
concerns the Christian religion, Christendom, and the Church with its various denominations, from the 1st century to the present. Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
and Eastern Orthodox Christianity
Christianity
spread to all of Europe in the Middle Ages. Christianity
Christianity
expanded throughout the world and became the world's largest religion due to European colonialism.[1] Today there are more than two billion Christians worldwide.[2]Contents1 Early Christianity
Christianity
(c
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Christian Tradition
Christian tradition is a collection of traditions consisting of practices or beliefs associated with Christianity. These ecclesiastical traditions have more or less authority based on the nature of the practices or beliefs and on the group in question. Many churches have traditional practices, such as particular patterns of worship or rites, that developed over time. Deviations from such patterns are sometimes considered unacceptable or heretical. Similarly, traditions can be stories or history that are or were widely accepted without being part of Christian doctrine, e.g., the crucifixion of Saint Peter
Saint Peter
or the evangelistic activity of Thomas the Apostle in India, which are widely believed to have happened but are not recorded in scripture
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Apostles
In Christian theology
Christian theology
and ecclesiology, the apostles (Greek: ἀπόστολος, translit. apóstolos, lit. 'one who is sent away'), particularly the Twelve Apostles
Twelve Apostles
(also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity. During the life and ministry of Jesus
Jesus
in the 1st century AD, the apostles were his closest followers and became the primary teachers of the gospel message of Jesus. The word disciple is sometimes used interchangeably with apostle; for instance, the Gospel of John
Gospel of John
makes no distinction between the two terms[citation needed]. In modern usage, prominent missionaries are often called apostles, a practice which stems from the Latin
Latin
equivalent of apostle, i.e. missio, the source of the English word missionary
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Reformation
The Reformation, or, more fully, the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation, was a schism in Western Christianity
Christianity
initiated by Martin Luther
Martin Luther
and continued by John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, Jacobus Arminius
Jacobus Arminius
and other Protestant Reformers
Protestant Reformers
in 16th-century Europe. It is usually considered to have started with the publication of the Ninety-five Theses
Ninety-five Theses
by Martin Luther
Martin Luther
in 1517 and lasted until the end of the Thirty Years' War in 1648. Although there had been earlier attempts to reform the Catholic Church – such as those of Jan Hus, Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, and Girolamo Savonarola – Luther is widely acknowledged to have started the Reformation
Reformation
with the Ninety-five Theses
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Saint Peter
Saint
Saint
Peter (Syriac/Aramaic: ܫܸܡܥܘܿܢ ܟܹ݁ܐܦ݂ܵܐ, Shemayon Keppa, Hebrew: שמעון בר יונה‎ Shim'on bar Yona, Greek: Πέτρος Petros, Coptic: ⲡⲉⲧⲣⲟⲥ, translit. Petros, Latin: Petrus; r. AD 30;[1] d. between AD 64 and 68[2]), also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simon ( pronunciation (help·info)), according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles
Twelve Apostles
of Jesus
Jesus
Christ, leaders of the early Christian Great Church. Pope
Pope
Gregory I called him repeatedly the "Prince of the Apostles".[3] According to Catholic teaching, Jesus promised Peter in the "Rock of My Church" dialogue in Matthew 16:18 a special position in the Church
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Paul The Apostle
Paul the Apostle
Paul the Apostle
(Latin: Paulus; Greek: Παῦλος, translit. Paulos, Coptic: ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 67), commonly known as Saint
Saint
Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (Hebrew: שאול התרסי‎, translit. Sha'ul ha-Tarsi; Greek: Σαῦλος Ταρσεύς, translit. Saulos Tarseus),[4][5][6] was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ
Christ
to the first century world.[7] Paul is generally considered one of the most important figures of the Apostolic Age[8][9] and in the mid-30s to the mid-50s AD he founded several churches in Asia Minor and Europe. He took advantage of his status as both a Jew
Jew
and a Roman citizen
Roman citizen
to minister to both Jewish and Roman audiences
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Early Christianity
Early Christianity
Christianity
is the period of Christianity
Christianity
preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325. It is typically divided into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period
Ante-Nicene Period
(from the Apostolic Age
Apostolic Age
until Nicea). The first Christians, as described in the first chapters of the Acts of the Apostles, were all Jews
Jews
either by birth or conversion, for which the biblical term "proselyte" is used,[1] and referred to by historians as Jewish Christians
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