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Chalcedon
Chalcedon
Chalcedon
(/kælˈsiːdən/ or /ˈkælsɪdɒn/;[1] Greek: Χαλκηδών, sometimes transliterated as Chalkedon) was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor. It was located almost directly opposite Byzantium, south of Scutari (modern Üsküdar) and it is now a district of the city of Istanbul
Istanbul
named Kadıköy
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum
Mediolanum
(286–402, Western) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna
Ravenna
(402–476, Western) Nicomedia
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Otanes
Otanes (Greek: Ὀτάνης) is a name given to several figures that appear in the Histories of Herodotus. One or more of these figures may be the same person.Contents1 In the Histories 2 Legacy 3 References 4 Sources 5 External linksIn the Histories[edit]In Histories 3Histories 3.68.1, 3.68.3, 3.69.6 has an Otanes as the son of the Achaemenid Pharnaspes, as the father of Phaidyme (or Phaedyma), who in turn is a wife of Cambyses II, and later a wife of the Gaumata alias Smerdis. Herodotus
Herodotus
gives this Otanes a role in the overthrow of the false Smerdis, and this Otanes is therefore generally assumed to be identical to a known co-conspirator of Darius I, mentioned in Darius's own list of his helpers at overthrowing Gaumata (DB IV 83)
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Funerary Stele
A stele (/ˈstiːli/ STEE-lee)[Note 1] is a stone or wooden slab, generally taller than it is wide, erected in the ancient world as a monument. Grave steles were often used for funerary or commemorative purposes. Stelae as slabs of stone would also be used as ancient Greek and Roman government notices or as boundary markers to mark borders or property lines. The surface of the stele usually has text, ornamentation, or both. The ornamentation may be inscribed, carved in relief, or painted. Traditional Western gravestones may technically be considered the modern equivalent of ancient stelae, though the term is very rarely applied in this way
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Megabazus
Megabazus (Ancient Greek: Μεγαβάζος) was a highly regarded Persian general under Darius. Most information about him comes from The Histories by Herodotus. Troops left behind in Europe after a failed attempt to fully conquer the Scythians were put under the command of Megabazus. The Persian troops subjugated gold-rich Thrace, the coastal Greek cities, and defeated the powerful Paeonians.[3][4] Finally, Megabazus sent envoys to Amyntas I, demanding acceptation of Persian domination, which the Macedonian accepted.[5][6] He then removed the Paeonians from their homeland and brought them to Darius in Sardis. Megabazus was suspicious of Histiaeus and advised Darius to bring him to Susa to keep a closer eye on him
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Oracle Of Apollo
The Pythia (/ˈpɪθiə/,[1] Ancient Greek: Πῡθίᾱ [pyːˈtʰi.aː]) was the name of the high priestess of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi who also served as the oracle, commonly known as the Oracle of Delphi. The name Pythia is derived from Pytho, which in myth was the original name of Delphi. In etymology, the Greeks derived this place name from the verb, πύθειν (púthein) "to rot", which refers to the sickly sweet smell of the decomposition of the body of the monstrous Python after she was slain by Apollo.[2] Pythia was the House of Snakes. The Pythia was established at the latest in the 8th century BC,[3] and was widely credited for her prophecies inspired by being filled by the spirit of the god (or enthusiasmos), in this case Apollo
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Apollo
Apollo
Apollo
(Attic, Ionic, and Homeric
Homeric
Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (GEN Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Latin: Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology. The ideal of the kouros (a beardless, athletic youth), Apollo
Apollo
has been variously recognized as a god of music, truth and prophecy, healing, the sun and light, plague, poetry, and more. Apollo
Apollo
is the son of Zeus
Zeus
and Leto, and has a twin sister, the chaste huntress Artemis
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Zeus
Zeus
Zeus
(/zjuːs/;[3] Greek: Ζεύς Zeús [zdeǔ̯s])[4] is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus. His name is cognate with the first element of his Roman equivalent Jupiter. His mythologies and powers are similar, though not identical, to those of Indo-European deities such as Indra, Jupiter, Perkūnas, Perun, Thor, and Odin.[5][6][7] Zeus
Zeus
is the child of Cronus
Cronus
and Rhea, the youngest of his siblings to be born, though sometimes reckoned the eldest as the others required disgorging from Cronus's stomach. In most traditions, he is married to Hera, by whom he is usually said to have fathered Ares, Hebe, and Hephaestus.[8] At the oracle of Dodona, his consort was said to be Dione, by whom the Iliad
Iliad
states that he fathered Aphrodite.[11] Zeus was also infamous for his erotic escapades
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Yoros Castle
Yoros Castle
Yoros Castle
(Turkish: Yoros kalesi) is a Byzantine
Byzantine
ruined castle at the confluence of the Bosphorus
Bosphorus
and the Black Sea, to the north of Joshua's Hill, in Istanbul, Turkey. It is also commonly referred to as the Genoese Castle, due to Genoa’s possession of it in the mid-15th century.Yoros Castle, Anadolu Kavağı, Beykoz-İstanbul.Contents1 Geography 2 History 3 Present Day Yoros Castle 4 Anadolu Kavağı 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksGeography[edit]The confluence of the Bosphorus
Bosphorus
and the Black Sea, as seen from Yoros Castle, revealing its highly strategic location. Yoros Castle
Yoros Castle
sits on a hill surrounded by steep bluffs overlooking the Bosphorus. It is just north of a small fishing village called Anadolu Kavağı, on Macar Bay, and the entire area is referred to as Anadolu Kavağı
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İzmit
İzmit, known as Nicomedia
Nicomedia
in antiquity, is a city in Turkey, the administrative center of the Kocaeli Province
Kocaeli Province
as well as the Metropolitan Municipality. It is located at the Gulf of İzmit
Gulf of İzmit
in the Sea of Marmara, about 100 km (62 mi) east of Istanbul, on the northwestern part of Anatolia. The city center has a population of 300,611 (2011 census). The population of the province (including rural areas) is 1,459,772. (Unlike other provinces in Turkey, apart from Istanbul, the whole province is included within the municipality of the metropolitan center.) Nicomedia
Nicomedia
was the eastern and most senior capital city of the Roman Empire between 286 and 324, during the Tetrarchy
Tetrarchy
introduced by Diocletian
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Pendik
Pendik
Pendik
is a district of Istanbul, Turkey
Turkey
on the Asian side between Kartal
Kartal
and Tuzla, on the Marmara Sea. Population is 691,681. It also neighbours Sultanbeyli, Sancaktepe
Sancaktepe
and Çekmeköy
Çekmeköy
from northwest, Şile
Şile
from north and Gebze
Gebze
from northeast.Contents1 History 2 Pendik
Pendik
today 3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit] There are records of settlements in Pendik
Pendik
going back to 5,000 years ago, a Greek settlement in 753 BC, and many more conquests. In 1080, the town was taken over by the Seljuk Turks, and recaptured by the Byzantines in 1086 and so on
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Satrap
Satraps were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
and the Hellenistic empires. The word satrap is also often used metaphorically in modern literature to refer to world leaders or governors who are heavily influenced by larger world superpowers or hegemonies and act as their surrogates.[1]Contents1 Etymology 2 Medo-Persian satraps 3 Hellenistic satraps 4 Parthian and Sassanian satraps 5 Western satraps 6 Satraps today 7 See also 8 References 9 F
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Sparta
Coordinates: 37°4′55″N 22°25′25″E / 37.08194°N 22.42361°E / 37.08194; 22.42361LacedaemonΣπάρτα / Λακεδαίμων900s–192 BCLambda was used by the Spartan army
Spartan army
as a symbol of Lacedaemon (Λακεδαίμων)Territory of ancient SpartaCapital SpartaLanguages Doric GreekReligion Greek polytheismGovernment Diarchy OligarchyKing See listLegislature GerousiaHistorical era Classical antiquity •  Foundation 900s BC •  Messenian War 685–668 BC •  Battle of Thermopylae 480 BC •  Peloponnesian War 431–404 BC •  Battle of Mantinea 362 BC •  Annexed by Achaea 192 BCPreceded by Succeeded byGreek Dark AgesAchaean LeagueRoman RepublicThis article contains special characters. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols.Hollow Lacedaemon
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Carthage
Carthage
Carthage
(/ˈkɑːrθɪdʒ/, from Latin: Carthago; Phoenician: Qart-ḥadašt ("New city")) was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis
Tunis
in what is now the Tunis Governorate
Tunis Governorate
in Tunisia. The city developed from a Phoenician colony into the capital of an empire dominating the Mediterranean during the first millennium BC.[1] The legendary Queen Dido
Dido
is regarded as the founder of the city, though her historicity has been questioned. According to accounts by Timaeus of Tauromenium, she purchased from a local tribe the amount of land that could be covered by an oxhide
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Athens
Athens
Athens
(/ˈæθɪnz/;[3] Greek: Αθήνα, Athína [aˈθina], Ancient Greek: Ἀθῆναι, Athênai [a.tʰɛ̂ː.nai̯]) is the capital and largest city of Greece
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Darius I Of Persia
Darius I
Darius I
(Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: داریوش‎ Dāryuš; Hebrew: דָּרְיָוֶשׁ‬, Modern Darəyaveš, Tiberian Dāreyāwéš; c. 550–486 BCE) was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire
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