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Cetorhinus
The basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) is the second-largest living fish, after the whale shark, and one of three plankton-eating sharks along with the whale shark and megamouth shark. Adults typically reach 6–8 m (20–26 ft) in length. They are usually greyish-brown, with mottled skin. The caudal fin has a strong lateral keel and a crescent shape. The basking shark is a cosmopolitan migratory species, found in all the world's temperate oceans. A slow-moving filter feeder, its common name derives from its habit of feeding at the surface, appearing to be basking in the warmer water there. It has anatomical adaptations for filter feeding, such as a greatly enlarged mouth and highly developed gill rakers. Its snout is conical and the gill slits extend around the top and bottom of its head. The gill rakers, dark and bristle-like, are used to catch plankton as water filters through the mouth and over the gills
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Basking Sharks (band)
Basking Sharks were a synthesiser band that formed in 1980. Members Adrian Todd, Ged McPhail and Martyn Eames toured extensively throughout the UK. They used a variety of home-made electronic instruments supplemented by second hand synths that had been customised to provide unique sounds. On stage they always played “live” without the use of backing tracks. Their stage act included a slide show, films and computer visuals synced into the stage performance. Their music merged power pop with European influences and experimentation. They produced a single, an EP and an LP, numerous videos, and live recordings. A 'best of' CD, Back from the Deep Water was produced in 2004. They supported John Peel
John Peel
at a Lancaster gig which prompted him to invite them to record at Maida Vale for his radio show.[1] In 1987 they separated to pursue different projects. Adrian and Martyn formed the industrial technical band Degree 33
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Gill Rakers
Gill rakers in fish are bony or cartilaginous processes that project from the branchial arch (gill arch) and are involved with suspension feeding tiny prey. They are not to be confused with the gill filaments that compose the fleshy part of the gill used for gas exchange. Rakers are usually present in two rows, projecting from both the anterior and posterior side of each gill arch. Rakers are widely varied in number, spacing, and form. By preventing food particles from exiting the spaces between the gill arches, they enable the retention of food particles in filter feeders.[1] The structure and spacing of gill rakers in fish determines the size of food particles trapped, and correlates with feeding behavior. Fish with densely spaced, elongated, comb-like gill rakers are efficient at filtering tiny prey, whereas carnivores and omnivores often have more widely spaced gill rakers with secondary projections
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Fish
Tetrapods Fish
Fish
are the gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits. They form a sister group to the tunicates, together forming the olfactores. Included in this definition are the living hagfish, lampreys, and cartilaginous and bony fish as well as various extinct related groups. Tetrapods emerged within lobe-finned fishes, so cladistically they are fish as well. However, traditionally fish are rendered paraphyletic by excluding the tetrapods (i.e., the amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals which all descended from within the same ancestry). Because in this manner the term "fish" is defined negatively as a paraphyletic group, it is not considered a formal taxonomic grouping in systematic biology
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Whale Shark
The whale shark (Rhincodon typus) is a slow-moving, filter-feeding carpet shark and the largest known extant fish species. The largest confirmed individual had a length of 12.65 m (41.5 ft) and a weight of about 21.5 t (47,000 lb).[8] The whale shark holds many records for sheer size in the animal kingdom, most notably being by far the largest living nonmammalian vertebrate. It is the sole member of the genus Rhincodon and the only extant member of the family Rhincodontidae which belongs to the subclass Elasmobranchii
Elasmobranchii
in the class Chondrichthyes. Before 1984 it was classified as Rhiniodon into Rhinodontidae
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Planktivore
A planktivore is an aquatic organism that feeds on planktonic food, including zooplankton and phytoplankton.[1][2]Contents1 Forms of plankton 2 Forms of planktivory 3 Planktivore
Planktivore
ecology 4 See also 5 ReferencesForms of plankton[edit]PhytoplanktonZooplanktonA manta ray consuming plankton Phytoplankton
Phytoplankton
are usually photosynthetic one-celled plant organisms. These organisms are usually found near the surface of the water due to their need for light energy for their photosynthetic processes. Phytoplankton
Phytoplankton
provide most of the oxygen that is in the water and provide a large amount of food for other organisms in the water column. Zooplankton, in contrast, are heterotrophic plankton, animals which ingest nutrients rather than producing it via chemical reactions
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Megamouth Shark
The megamouth shark (Megachasma pelagios) is a species of deepwater shark. It is rarely seen by humans and is the smallest of the three extant filter-feeding sharks alongside the whale shark and basking shark. Since its discovery in 1976, few megamouth sharks have been seen, with 63 specimens known to have been caught or sighted as of May 2017, including four recordings on film. Like the other two planktivorous sharks, it swims with its enormous mouth wide open, filtering water for plankton and jellyfish. It is distinctive for its large head with rubbery lips
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Caudal Fin
Fins are usually the most distinctive anatomical features of a fish. They are composed of bony spines or rays protruding from the body with skin covering them and joining them together, either in a webbed fashion, as seen in most bony fish, or similar to a flipper, as seen in sharks. Apart from the tail or caudal fin, fish fins have no direct connection with the spine and are supported only by muscles. Their principal function is to help the fish swim. Fins located in different places on the fish serve different purposes such as moving forward, turning, keeping an upright position or stopping. Most fish use fins when swimming, flying fish use pectoral fins for gliding, and frogfish use them for crawling
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Cosmopolitan Distribution
In biogeography, a taxon is said to have a cosmopolitan distribution if its range extends across all or most of the world in appropriate habitats. Such a taxon is said to exhibit cosmopolitanism or cosmopolitism. The opposite extreme is endemism.Contents1 Related terms and concepts 2 Aspects and degrees 3 Oceanic and terrestrial 4 Ecological delimitation 5 Regional and temporal variation in populations 6 Ancient and modern 7 See also 8 ReferencesRelated terms and concepts[edit] The term pandemism also is in use, but not all authors are consistent in the sense in which they use the term; some speak of pandemism mainly in referring to diseases and pandemics, and some as a term intermediate between endemism and cosmopolitanism, in effect regarding pandemism as subcosmopolitanism
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Fish Migration
Many types of fish migrate on a regular basis, on time scales ranging from daily to annually or longer, and over distances ranging from a few metres to thousands of kilometres. Fish
Fish
usually migrate to feed or to reproduce, but in other cases the reasons are unclear. Migrations involves the fish moving from one part of a water body to another on a regular basis. Some particular types of migration are anadromous, in which adult fish live in the sea and migrate into fresh water to spawn, and catadromous, in which adult fish live in fresh water and migrate into salt water to spawn. Marine forage fish often make large migrations between their spawning, feeding and nursery grounds. Movements are associated with ocean currents and with the availability of food in different areas at different times of year. The migratory movements may partly be linked to the fact that the fish cannot identify their own offspring and moving in this way prevents cannibalism
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Species
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition. Scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If as Linnaeus
Linnaeus
thought, species were fixed, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. While this definition is often adequate, when looked at more closely it is problematic. For example, with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, or in a ring species, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear
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Filter Feeder
Filter feeders are a sub-group of suspension feeding animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water, typically by passing the water over a specialized filtering structure. Some animals that use this method of feeding are clams, krill, sponges, baleen whales, and many fish (including some sharks). Some birds, such as flamingos and certain species of duck, are also filter feeders. Filter feeders can play an important role in clarifying water, and are therefore considered ecosystem engineers.Contents1 Fish 2 Crustaceans 3 Baleen
Baleen
whales 4 Bivalves 5 Sponges 6 Cnidarians 7 Flamingos 8 Pterosaurs 9 Marine reptiles 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 External linksFish[edit] See also: Forage fish Most forage fish are filter feeders
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Overwinter
Overwintering is the process by which some organisms pass through or wait out the winter season, or pass through that period of the year when "winter" conditions (cold or sub-zero temperatures, ice, snow, limited food supplies) make normal activity or even survival difficult or near impossible. In some cases "winter" is characterized not necessarily by cold but by dry conditions; passing through such periods could likewise be called overwintering. Hibernation
Hibernation
and migration are the two major ways in which overwintering is accomplished. Overwintering occurs in several classes of lifeform:In entomology, overwintering is how an insect passes the winter season. Many insects overwinter as adults, pupae, or eggs. This can be done inside buildings, under tree bark, or beneath fallen leaves or other plant matter on the ground, among other places
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Johann Ernst Gunnerus
Johan Ernst Gunnerus
Johan Ernst Gunnerus
(26 February 1718 – 23 September 1773) was a Norwegian bishop and botanist. Gunnerus was born at Christiania. He was bishop of the Diocese of Nidaros
Diocese of Nidaros
from 1758 until his death and also a professor of theology at the University of Copenhagen.Contents1 Biography 2 References2.1 Bibliography 2.2 NotesBiography[edit] Gunnerus was born and raised in Christiania in Norway. He enrolled at the University of Copenhagen
University of Copenhagen
in Denmark
Denmark
in 1737, but had to postpone his studies for three years because of poverty. He studied in Copenhagen from 1740, at Halle in Germany from 1742, and at Jena from 1744, where he received his Magister degree in 1745 and in 1753 was admitted to the Faculty of Philosophy. At Jena he published extensively, notably a work on natural and international law in eight volumes
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Bay Of Fundy
The Bay of Fundy
Bay of Fundy
(or Fundy Bay) is a bay between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick
New Brunswick
and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the state of Maine. It has the highest tidal range in the world
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Hebrides
The Hebrides
Hebrides
(/ˈhɛbrɪdiːz/; Scottish Gaelic: Innse Gall, pronounced [ĩːʃə gau̯l̪ˠ]; Old Norse: Suðreyjar) compose a widespread and diverse archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland. There are two main groups: the Inner and Outer Hebrides. These islands have a long history of occupation dating back to the Mesolithic, and the culture of the residents has been affected by the successive influences of Celtic, Norse, and English-speaking peoples. This diversity is reflected in the names given to the islands, which are derived from the languages that have been spoken there in historic and perhaps prehistoric times. The Hebrides
Hebrides
are the source of much of Scottish Gaelic literature
Scottish Gaelic literature
and Gaelic music
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