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Cetiosauridae
CETIOSAURIDAE is a family of sauropod dinosaurs . While traditionally a waste bin taxon containing various unrelated species, some recent studies have found that it may represent a natural clade . Additionally, at least one study has suggested that the mamenchisaurids may represent a sub-group of the cetiosaurids, which would be termed Mamenchisaurinae . REFERENCES * ^ A B C Holtz, Thomas R. Jr. (2012) Dinosaurs: The Most Complete, Up-to-Date Encyclopedia for Dinosaur
Dinosaur
Lovers of All Ages, Winter 2011 Appendix. * Dinosaurs portal This Sauropodomorph -related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Zizhongosaurus
ZIZHONGOSAURUS (meaning "Zizhong lizard") is a genus of basal herbivorous sauropod dinosaur which lived in the Early Jurassic
Early Jurassic
Period of China
China
. It was a large-bodied herbivore characterized by a long neck. The type species Zizhongosaurus chuanchengensis was named in 1983 by Dong Zhiming , Zhou Shiwu and Zhang Yihong . The generic name is derived from Zizhong County in Sichuan
Sichuan
Province. The specific name refers to the town of Chuancheng . The type specimens consist of three syntypes : V9067.1 is a partial dorsal vertebra ; V9067.2 is a humerus or upper arm; and V9067.3 is a pubis . All specimens likely were part of a single skeleton. Zizhongosaurus was described as a small species. In 1999 Li Kui mentioned a second species: Zizhongosaurus huangshibanensis but this has remained an undescribed nomen nudum
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Vulcanodon
VULCANODON (meaning "volcano tooth ") is an extinct genus of sauropod dinosaur from the Early Jurassic
Early Jurassic
of southern Africa . The only known species is V. karibaensis. Discovered in 1969 in Rhodesia
Rhodesia
(now known as Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
), it was regarded as the earliest known sauropod for decades, and is still one of the most primitive sauropods that has been discovered. As a quadrupedal , ground-dwelling herbivore , Vulcanodon
Vulcanodon
already showed the typical sauropod body plan with column-like legs and a long neck and tail. It was smaller than most other sauropods, measuring approximately eleven metres (35 ft) in length. Vulcanodon
Vulcanodon
is known from a fragmentary skeleton including much of the pelvic girdle , hindlimbs, forearms, and tail, but lacking the trunk and neck vertebrae as well as the skull
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Early Jurassic
The EARLY JURASSIC epoch (in chronostratigraphy corresponding to the LOWER JURASSIC series ) is the earliest of three epochs of the Jurassic
Jurassic
period. The Early Jurassic
Jurassic
starts immediately after the Triassic- Jurassic
Jurassic
extinction event , 201.3 Ma (million years ago), and ends at the start of the Middle Jurassic
Jurassic
174.1 Ma. Certain rocks of marine origin of this age in Europe are called "Lias " and that name was used for the period, as well, in 19th century geology. In southern Germany rocks of this age are called Black Jurassic
Jurassic

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Sauropoda
†Opisthocoelia Owen, 1860 †Cetiosauria Seeley, 1870 SAUROPODA (/ˌsɔːrˈɒpədə/ or /ˌsɔːrəˈpoʊdə/ ), or the SAUROPODS (/ˈsɔːrəˌpɒdz/ ; sauro- + -pod, "lizard-footed"), are an infraorder of saurischian ("lizard-hipped") dinosaurs . They had very long necks, long tails, small heads (relative to the rest of their body), and four thick, pillar-like legs. They are notable for the enormous sizes attained by some species, and the group includes the largest animals to have ever lived on land. Well-known genera include Brachiosaurus , Diplodocus , Apatosaurus and Brontosaurus . Sauropods first appeared in the late Triassic Period , where they somewhat resembled the closely related (and possibly ancestral) group "Prosauropoda". By the Late Jurassic (150 million years ago), sauropods had become widespread (especially the diplodocids and brachiosaurids)
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Sauropodomorpha
SAUROPODOMORPHA (/ˌsɔːrəˌpɒdəˈmɔːrfə/ SAW-rə-POD-ə-MOR-fə ; from Greek, meaning "lizard-footed forms") is an extinct clade of long-necked, herbivorous , saurischian dinosaurs that includes the sauropods and their ancestral relatives. Sauropods generally grew to very large sizes, had long necks and tails, were quadrupedal , and became the largest animals to ever walk the Earth. The "prosauropods ", which preceded the sauropods, were smaller and were often able to walk on two legs . The sauropodomorphs were the dominant terrestrial herbivores throughout much of the Mesozoic Era
Mesozoic Era
, from their origins in the mid- Triassic
Triassic
(approximately 230 Ma) until their decline and extinction at the end of the Cretaceous (approximately 66 Ma)
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Isanosaurus
ISANOSAURUS (meaning " Isan lizard") was one of the first sauropod dinosaurs . It lived approximately 210 million years ago during the Upper Triassic
Triassic
(late Norian to Rhaetian stages) in Thailand
Thailand
. The only species is Isanosaurus
Isanosaurus
attavipachi. Though important for the understanding of sauropod origin and early evolution, Isanosaurus
Isanosaurus
is poorly known. Exact relationships to other early sauropods remain unresolved. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Discovery * 3 References * 4 External links DESCRIPTIONThe only specimen includes a neck vertebra , a back vertebra and part of a second, six tail vertebra, two chevrons , fragmentary ribs, the right sternal plate , the right shoulder blade , and the left thigh bone (femur)
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Saurischia
SAURISCHIA (/sɔːˈrɪskiə/ saw-RIS-kee-ə , from the Greek sauros (σαυρος) meaning 'lizard' and ischion (ισχιον) meaning "hip joint") is one of the two basic divisions of dinosaurs (the other being Ornithischia ). In 1888, Harry Seeley classified dinosaurs into two orders , based on their hip structure, though today most paleontologists classify Saurischia
Saurischia
as an unranked clade rather than an order. DESCRIPTIONAll carnivorous dinosaurs (certain types of theropods ) are traditionally classified as saurischians, as are all of the birds and one of the two primary lineages of herbivorous dinosaurs, the sauropodomorphs . At the end of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period , all saurischians except the birds became extinct in the course of the Cretaceous– Paleogene extinction event
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Family
In the context of human society , a FAMILY (from Latin : familia) is a group of people affiliated either by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage or other relationship), or co-residence (as implied by the etymology of the English word "family" from Latin familia 'family servants, domestics collectively, the servants in a household,' thus also 'members of a household, the estate, property; the household, including relatives and servants,' abstract noun formed from famulus 'servant, slave ' ) or some combination of these. Members of the immediate family may include spouses, parents, brothers, sisters, sons, and daughters. Members of the extended family may include grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins, nephews, nieces, and siblings-in-law . Sometimes these are also considered members of the immediate family, depending on an individual's specific relationship with them. In most societies, the family is the principal institution for the socialization of children
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Sauropod
†Opisthocoelia Owen, 1860 †Cetiosauria Seeley, 1870 SAUROPODA (/ˌsɔːrˈɒpədə/ or /ˌsɔːrəˈpoʊdə/ ), or the SAUROPODS (/ˈsɔːrəˌpɒdz/ ; sauro- + -pod, "lizard-footed"), are an infraorder of saurischian ("lizard-hipped") dinosaurs . They had very long necks, long tails, small heads (relative to the rest of their body), and four thick, pillar-like legs. They are notable for the enormous sizes attained by some species, and the group includes the largest animals to have ever lived on land. Well-known genera include Brachiosaurus
Brachiosaurus
, Diplodocus , Apatosaurus and Brontosaurus . Sauropods first appeared in the late Triassic
Triassic
Period , where they somewhat resembled the closely related (and possibly ancestral) group "Prosauropoda"
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Antetonitrus
ANTETONITRUS is a genus of sauropod dinosaur found in Early Jurassic rocks in South Africa
South Africa
. The only species is Antetonitrus
Antetonitrus
ingenipes. As one of the oldest known sauropods, it is crucial for the understanding of the origin and early evolution of this group. It was a quadrupedal herbivore , like all of its later relatives, but shows primitive adaptations to use the forelimbs for grasping, instead of purely for weight support. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Description * 3 Classification * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYAdam Yates , an Australian expert on early sauropodomorphs , named Antetonitrus
Antetonitrus
in a 2003 report co-authored by South African James Kitching
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Vulcanodontidae
The Early Jurassic
Early Jurassic
sauropod dinosaurs Zizhongosaurus , Barapasaurus , Tazoudasaurus , and Vulcanodon
Vulcanodon
may form a natural group of basal sauropods called the VULCANODONTIDAE. Basal vulcanodonts include some of the earliest known examples of sauropods. The family-level name Vulcanodontidae
Vulcanodontidae
was erected by M.R. Cooper in 1984. In 1995 Hunt et al. published the opinion that the family is synonymous with the BARAPASAURIDAE. One of the key morphological features specific to the family is an unusually narrow sacrum . REFERENCES * ^ Cooper, M.R. (1984). "A reassessment of Vulcanodon
Vulcanodon
karibaensis Raath (Dinosauria: Saurischia) and the origin of the Sauropoda". Palaeontologia Africana 25: 203–231. * ^ A. P. Hunt, M. G. Lockley, S. G. Lucas and C. A
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Blikanasaurus
BLIKANASAURUS (meaning "Blikana lizard") was a genus of sauropodomorph dinosaur found in Lower Elliot Formation
Elliot Formation
rocks from the Late Triassic near the Blikana location in what is now South Africa
South Africa
's Eastern Cape Province
Eastern Cape Province
. The type specimen is housed in the South African Museum in Cape Town. Known from a left lower limb only, it has been variously classified as a prosauropod or basal sauropod . The type species , Blikanasaurus cromptoni, was first described by Galton and van Heerden in 1985. It is the type genus of the Family Blikanasauridae . The species name is in honour of Dr AW (Fuzz) Crompton, then director of the South African Museum, thereafter at Yale and Harvard. REFERENCES * ^ Galton, Peter M.; Van Heerden, Jacques (1985). "Partial hindlimb of Blikanasaurus cromptoni n. gen. And n
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Ohmdenosaurus
OHMDENOSAURUS (meaning " Ohmden lizard") is the name given to a genus of herbivorous dinosaur from the Early Jurassic
Early Jurassic
. It was a very small (4 m (13 ft) long) perhaps vulcanodontid sauropod which lived in Germany
Germany
. Only a couple of fragmentary leg bones were found. In the 1970s, German palaeontologist Rupert Wild , visiting the Urwelt-Museum Hauff at Holzmaden , noticed a fossil in a display labelled as a plesiosaur which he recognised to be a dinosaur bone instead. It proved to be impossible to establish the exact provenance of the remains. In 1978 it was named and described by him as the type species Ohmdenosaurus
Ohmdenosaurus
liasicus. The generic name refers to Ohmden , a town in Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
near the quarry the remains were probably found in
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Tazoudasaurus
TAZOUDASAURUS is a genus of vulcanodontid sauropod dinosaur hailing from the Early Jurassic
Early Jurassic
Toundoute overthrust beds located in the High Moroccan Atlas Mountains
Atlas Mountains
. The remains, consisting of a partial adult skeleton and associated partial juvenile skeleton found in continental detrital sediments, were described by Ronan Allain et al. in early 2004. The generic name derives from one of the localities, Tazouda, while the specific descriptor is a latinization of the Arabic
Arabic
term for "slender" due to the animal’s small size for a sauropod. Its fossil was found alongside that of Berberosaurus . Tazoudasaurus, a small sauropod at 9 meters (30 feet) long, is characterized by rather primitive features such as the prosauropod -like mandible with spatulate and denticle-bearing teeth, lack of a U-shaped mandibular symphysis as other more derived sauropods
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Clade
A CLADE (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: κλάδος, klados, "branch") is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants , and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life ". The common ancestor may be an individual, a population , a species (extinct or extant ), and so on right up to a kingdom . Clades are nested, one in another, as each branch in turn splits into smaller branches. These splits reflect evolutionary history as populations diverged and evolved independently. Clades are termed monophyletic (Greek: "one clan") groups. Over the last few decades, the cladistic approach has revolutionized biological classification and revealed surprising evolutionary relationships among organisms. Increasingly, taxonomists try to avoid naming taxa that are not clades; that is, taxa that are not monophyletic
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