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Cerococcidae
See text CEROCOCCIDAE is a family of scale insects commonly known as ORNATE PIT SCALES or CEROCOCCIDS. There are seventy two species in three genera. Members of this family occur in all regions of the world. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Life cycle * 3 Genera * 4 References DESCRIPTIONAdult females produce a protective waxy test that shields their body. The tests are mostly creamy or varying shades of brown but some species have orange, yellow, red, pink or white. Male tests are smaller and narrower than those of the females and are developed in the second instar . Species in the genera Asterococcus and Solenophora incorporate the shed skin of the first instar in their test. The second instar females are believed to develop tests in these genera but in Cerococcus it is the third instars that do so. LIFE CYCLEOrnate pit scales have three instar stages in the females and five in the males
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Pterygota
For alternative classifications and fossil orders, see text. The PTERYGOTA are a subclass of insects that includes the winged insects. It also includes insect orders that are secondarily wingless (that is, insect groups whose ancestors once had wings but that have lost them as a result of subsequent evolution). The pterygotan group comprises almost all insects. The insect orders not included are the Archaeognatha (jumping bristletails) and the Zygentoma (silverfishes and firebrats ), two primitively wingless insect orders. Also not included are the three orders no longer considered to be insects: Protura , Collembola
Collembola
, and Diplura
Diplura

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Agricultural Research Service
The AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE (ARS) is the principal in-house research agency of the United States Department of Agriculture
United States Department of Agriculture
(USDA). ARS is one of four agencies in USDA's Research, Education and Economics mission area. ARS is charged with extending the nation's scientific knowledge and solving agricultural problems through its four national program areas: nutrition , food safety and quality; animal production and protection; natural resources and sustainable agricultural systems; and crop production and protection. ARS research focuses on solving problems affecting Americans every day. ARS has more than 2,200 permanent scientists working on approximately 1,100 research projects at more than 100 locations across the country, with a few locations in other countries
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United States Department Of Agriculture
The UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (USDA), also known as the AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, agriculture, forestry, and food. It aims to meet the needs of farmers and ranchers, promote agricultural trade and production, work to assure food safety, protect natural resources, foster rural communities and end hunger in the United States and internationally. Approximately 80% of the USDA's $140 billion budget goes to the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) program. The largest component of the FNS budget is the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program
(formerly known as the Food Stamp program), which is the cornerstone of USDA's nutrition assistance
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Neoptera
NEOPTERA is a classification group that includes most parts of the winged insects , specifically those that can flex their wings over their abdomens . This is in contrast with the more basal orders of winged insects (the " Palaeoptera " assemblage), which are unable to flex their wings in this way. CONTENTS * 1 Classification * 2 Phylogeny * 3 References * 4 External links CLASSIFICATIONThe taxon Neoptera
Neoptera
was proposed by А.М
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Paraneoptera
PARANEOPTERA is a monophyletic superorder of insects which includes four orders, the bark lice , true lice , thrips , and hemipterans , the true bugs. The mouthparts of the Paraneoptera
Paraneoptera
reflect diverse feeding habits. Basal groups are microbial surface feeders, whereas more advanced groups feed on plant or animal fluids. CONTENTS * 1 Hemiptera * 2 Psocoptera * 3 Phthiraptera * 4 Thrips * 5 References HEMIPTERA Main article: Hemiptera Hemiptera /hɛˈmɪptərə/ is an order of insects most often known as the true bugs (cf. bug), comprising around 50,000–80,000 species of cicadas , aphids , planthoppers , leafhoppers , shield bugs , and others. They range in size from 1 millimetre (0.039 in) to around 15 centimetres (5.9 in), and share a common arrangement of sucking mouthparts
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Lophopidae
LOPHOPIDAE is a family of fulgoroid plant-hoppers with most species found in tropical South America and Asia (two genera occur in Africa). Most members of the family are characterized by the face being longer than wide with at least two lateral ridges (the median ridge/carina may be absent). The hind tibia can bear some spines, two to three (about four may be seen in the Eurybrachyidae ). Lateral ocelli are present below the compound eye and slightly in front of it. The wings are broad and held somewhat flat and the wings are often patterned. The nymphs have two long tails and many members have slightly flattened front tibiae. Elasmoscelis sp. REFERENCES * ^ Stål C. (1866) Hemiptera Homoptera Latr. Hemiptera Africana, 4: 1-276. * ^ Soulier-Perkins, Adeline (2001). "The Phylogeny of the Lophopidae
Lophopidae
and the Impact of Sexual Selection and Coevolutionary Sexual Conflict". Cladistics. 17: 56–78
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Kinnaridae
KINNARIDAE is a family of fulgoroid planthoppers . This is a small family of about 17 genera and about a 100 species. The family was erected by Muir in 1925 and is mostly members are found in the Oriental and Neotropical regions and only a few in the Nearctic and Palaearctic regions. Family members have a combination of defining characters. Adults have a small head that is narrower than the thorax with the vertex narrow and about as long as it is wide. The frons is longer than wide and lacks a median keel but has two lateral carinae. Three simple eyes are usually present. The antenna is small with a globose pedicel. The sucking mouthparts which form the rostrum or beak reaches between the hind femur or the tip of the abdomen and has a long segment at the tip. The pronotum is short and wider than the head. The wings have transparent membranes and the forewings long and parallel sided
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Wikispecies
WIKISPECIES is a wiki -based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation . Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species ; the project is directed at scientists, rather than at the general public. Jimmy Wales
Jimmy Wales
stated that editors are not required to fax in their degrees, but that submissions will have to pass muster with a technical audience. Wikispecies
Wikispecies
is available under the GNU Free Documentation License
GNU Free Documentation License
and CC BY-SA 3.0 . Started in September 2004, with biologists across the world invited to contribute, the project had grown a framework encompassing the Linnaean taxonomy with links to articles on individual species by April 2005
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Aetalionidae
AETALIONIDAE are a family of plant-hoppers in the superfamily Membracoidea
Membracoidea
. Aetalionidae are somewhat like the Membracidae in that they have one to three rows of short spines on the hind tibia but differ in having the front femur fused to the trochanter and the scutellum is completely exposed. The females have finger-like protrusions on the genital capsule. The family is mostly Neotropical but the genus Darthula is found in Asia
Asia
(Darthula hardwicki being eaten in parts of China and India ). REFERENCES * ^ Dietrich, C.H. (2009). "Auchenorrhyncha". In Resh, V.H.; Carde, R.T. Encyclopedia of Insects. Elsevier. p. 62. ISBN 9780123741448 . * ^ Chen, Xiaoming; Feng, Ying; Chen, Zhiyong (2009). "Common edible insects and their utilization in China". Entomological Research. 39 (5): 299
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Instar
An INSTAR (/ˈɪnstɑːr/ ( listen ), from the Latin "form", "likeness") is a developmental stage of arthropods , such as insects , between each moult (ecdysis), until sexual maturity is reached. Arthropods must shed the exoskeleton in order to grow or assume a new form. Differences between instars can often be seen in altered body proportions, colors, patterns, changes in the number of body segments or head width. After moulting, i.e. shedding their exoskeleton, the juvenile arthropods continue in their life cycle until they either pupate or moult again. This period of growth, instar, is fixed. Some arthropods can continue to moult after sexual maturity, but the stages between these subsequent moults are generally not called instars
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Arthropod
Condylipoda Latreille, 1802 An ARTHROPOD (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton ), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages . Arthropods form the phylum EUARTHROPODA, which includes insects , arachnids , myriapods , and crustaceans . The term ARTHROPODA as originally proposed refers to a proposed grouping of Euarthropods and the phylum Onychophora . Arthropods are characterized by their jointed limbs and cuticle made of chitin , often mineralised with calcium carbonate . The arthropod body plan consists of segments, each with a pair of appendages. The rigid cuticle inhibits growth, so arthropods replace it periodically by moulting . Their versatility has enabled them to become the most species-rich members of all ecological guilds in most environments
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Animal
ANIMALS are eukaryotic , multicellular organisms that form the biological kingdom ANIMALIA. With few exceptions, animals are motile (able to move), heterotrophic (consume organic material), reproduce sexually , and their embryonic development includes a blastula stage. The body plan of the animal derives from this blastula, differentiating specialized tissues and organs as it develops; this plan eventually becomes fixed, although some undergo metamorphosis at some stage in their lives. Zoology is the study of animals. Currently there are over 66 thousand (less than 5% of all animals) vertebrate species, and over 1.3 million (over 95% of all animals) invertebrate species in existence. Classification of animals into groups (taxonomy ) is accomplished using either the hierarchical Linnaean system; or cladistics , which displays diagrams (phylogenetic trees ) called cladograms to show relationships based on the evolutionary principle of the most recent common ancestor
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Alfred Balachowsky
ALFRED SERGE BALACHOWSKY (15 August 1901 – 24 December 1983) was a French entomologist born in Russia. He specialised in Coccoidea but also worked on Coleoptera . Balachowsky worked at the Muséum national d\'histoire naturelle . In 1948 he was elected president of the Société entomologique de France . Balachowsky was part of the Prosper Network in Paris during WWII, a spy network run by the British SOE. After the network was infiltrated and betrayed, Balachowsky was arrested and ultimately imprisoned at the Buchenwald Concentration Camp outside Weimar, Germany. Sent to Camp Dora on 1 February 1944, he was brought back to Buchenwald May 1 of the same year to work developing a vaccine for typhus . He also went to work helping the various underground groups inside the camp and established a network of contacts who fed him information from the camp's commanders
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Test (biology)
In biology, a TEST is the hard shell of some spherical marine animals, notably sea urchins and microorganisms such as testate foraminiferans , radiolarians , and testate amoebae . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Structure * 3 In sea urchins * 4 In foraminiferans * 5 In ascidians * 6 Other terms * 7 References * 8 See also ETYMOLOGYThe anatomical term "test" derives from the Latin testa (which means a rounded bowl, amphora or bottle). It is distinct from the term "test" as in "examination ", which derives from testis, related to the idea of testimony. STRUCTUREThe test is a skeletal structure, made of hard material such as calcium carbonate , silica , chitin or composite materials. As such, it allows the protection of the internal organs and the attachment of soft flesh. IN SEA URCHINS Test of a sea urchin
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