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Central Powers
The Central Powers
Central Powers
(German: Mittelmächte; Hungarian: Központi hatalmak; Turkish: İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; Bulgarian: Централни сили, translit. Tsentralni sili), consisting of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance[1] (German: Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18). It faced and was defeated by the Allied Powers that had formed around the Triple Entente. The Powers' origin was the alliance of Germany
Germany
and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
in 1879
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German Colonial Empire
The German colonial empire (German: Deutsches Kolonialreich) constituted the overseas colonies, dependencies and territories of Imperial Germany. The chancellor of this time period was Otto von Bismarck. Short-lived attempts of colonization by individual German states had occurred in preceding centuries, but crucial colonial efforts only began in 1884 with the Scramble for Africa. Claiming much of the left-over colonies that were yet unclaimed in the Scramble of Africa, Germany managed to build the third largest colonial empire after the British and the French, at the time.[2] Germany lost control when World War I began in 1914 and its colonies were seized by its enemies in the first weeks of the war. However some military units held out for a while longer: German South West Africa surrendered in 1915, Kamerun in 1916 and German East Africa only in 1918 at the end of the war
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De Facto
In law and government, de facto (/deɪ ˈfæktoʊ/ or /di ˈfæktoʊ/[1]; Latin: de facto, "in fact"; Latin pronunciation: [deː ˈfaktoː]), describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.[2][3][4] It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with de jure ("in law"), which refers to things that happen according to law
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Kingdom Of Lithuania (1918)
The Kingdom of Lithuania was a short-lived constitutional monarchy created towards the end of World War I when Lithuania was under occupation by the German Empire. The Council of Lithuania declared Lithuania's independence on February 16, 1918, but the Council was unable to form a government, police, or other state institutions due to the continued presence of German troops. The Germans presented various proposals to incorporate Lithuania into the German Empire, particularly Prussia. The Lithuanians resisted this idea and hoped to preserve their independence by creating a separate constitutional monarchy. On June 4, 1918, they voted to offer the Lithuanian throne to the German noble Wilhelm, 2nd Duke of Urach. Duke Wilhelm accepted the offer in July 1918 and took the name Mindaugas II. However, he never visited Lithuania. His election stirred up controversy, divided the Council, and did not achieve the desired results
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German Language
No official regulation ( German orthography
German orthography
regulated by the Council for German Orthography[4]). Language
Language
codesISO 639-1 deISO 639-2 ger
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Poland
Coordinates: 52°N 20°E / 52°N 20°E / 52; 20 Republic
Republic
of Poland Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Polska  (
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Democratic Republic Of Georgia
The Democratic Republic
Republic
of Georgia (DRG; Georgian: საქართველოს დემოკრატიული რესპუბლიკა sak’art’velos demokratiuli respublika) existed from May 1918 to February 1921 and was the first modern establishment of a Republic
Republic
of Georgia. The DRG was created after the collapse of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
that began with the Russian Revolution of 1917
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United Baltic Duchy
The proposed United Baltic Duchy,[1] (German: Vereinigtes Baltisches Herzogtum, Estonian: Balti Hertsogiriik, Latvian: Apvienotā Baltijas hercogiste) also known as the Grand Duchy of Livonia,[2] was a state proposed by the Baltic German nobility and exiled Russian nobility[3] after the Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
and German occupation of the Courland, Livonian, and Estonian governorates of the Russian Empire. The idea comprised the lands in Estonia
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De Jure
In law and government, de jure (/deɪ ˈdʒʊərɪ/ or /dɪ ˈdʒʊərɪ/; Latin: de iure, lit. 'in law' Latin pronunciation: [deː juːre]) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.[1] In contrast, de facto ("in fact" or "in practice") describes situations that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised.[2] The terms are often used to contrast different scenarios: for a colloquial example, "I know that, de jure, this is supposed to be a parking lot, but now that the flood has left four feet of water here, it's a de facto swimming pool".[3] Examples[edit] It is possible to have multiple simultaneous conflicting (de jure) legalities, possibly none of which is in force (de facto). After seizing power in 1526, Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi
Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi
made his brother, Umar Din, the lawful (de jure) Sultan
Sultan
of Adal
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Berlin
Berlin
Berlin
(/bɜːrˈlɪn/, German: [bɛɐ̯ˈliːn] ( listen)) is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states. With a steadily growing population of approximately 3.7 million,[4] Berlin
Berlin
is the second most populous city proper in the European Union
European Union
behind London
London
and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union.[5] Located in northeastern Germany
Germany
on the banks of the rivers Spree
Spree
and Havel, it is the centre of the Berlin- Brandenburg
Brandenburg
Metropolitan Region, which has roughly 6 million residents from more than 180 nations.[6][7][8][9] Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin
Berlin
is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate
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Dual Alliance (1879)
The Dual Alliance was a defensive alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary, which was created by treaty on 7 October 1879 as part of Bismarck's system of alliances to prevent or limit war. The two powers promised each other support in case of attack by Russia. Also, each state promised benevolent neutrality to the other if one of them was attacked by another European power (generally taken to be France, even more so after the Franco-Russian Alliance
Franco-Russian Alliance
of 1894). Germany’s Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck
saw the alliance as a way to prevent the isolation of Germany and to preserve peace, as Russia would not wage war against both empires. When Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
and Germany formed an alliance in 1879, it was one of the more surprising alliances of its time
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Emirate Of Jabal Shammar
The Emirate of Jabal Shammar (Arabic: إمارة جبل شمر‎), also known as the Emirate of Haʾil (إمارة حائل)[1] or the Emirate of The House of Rashīd
House of Rashīd
(إمارة آل رشيد), was a state in the Nejd region of Arabia, existing from the mid-nineteenth century to 1921.[2] Jabal Shammar in English is translated as the "Mountain of the Shammar". Jabal Shammar's capital was Ha'il.[2] It was led by a monarchy of the House of Rashīd
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Dissolution (law)
If Wiktionary
Wiktionary
has a definition already, change this tag to TWCleanup2 or else consider a soft redirect to Wiktionary
Wiktionary
by replacing the text on this page with Wi
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Wilhelm II, German Emperor
Wilhelm II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern; 27 January 1859 – 4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire
German Empire
and the Kingdom of Prussia
Prussia
from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. He was the eldest grandchild of the Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
of the United Kingdom and related to many monarchs and princes of Europe, most notably King George V
George V
of the United Kingdom and Emperor Nicholas II
Nicholas II
of Russia. Acceding to the throne in 1888, he dismissed the Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, in 1890. He also launched Germany
Germany
on a bellicose "New Course" in foreign affairs that culminated in his support for Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
in the crisis of July 1914 that led in a matter of days to the First World War
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Franz Joseph I Of Austria
Franz Joseph I or Francis Joseph I (Franz Joseph Karl; 18 August 1830 – 21 November 1916) was Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, and monarch of other states in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, from 2 December 1848 to his death.[1] From 1 May 1850 to 24 August 1866 he was also President of the German Confederation. He was the longest-reigning Emperor of Austria
Emperor of Austria
and King of Hungary, as well as the third-longest-reigning monarch of any country in European history, after Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV of France
and Johann II of Liechtenstein.[2] In December 1848, Emperor Ferdinand abdicated the throne at Olomouc, as part of Minister-president
Minister-president
Felix zu Schwarzenberg's plan to end the Revolutions of 1848
Revolutions of 1848
in Hungary. This allowed Ferdinand's nephew Franz Joseph to accede to the throne
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Romanization Of Bulgarian
Romanization
Romanization
of Bulgarian is the practice of transliteration of text in Bulgarian from its conventional Cyrillic
Cyrillic
orthography into the Latin alphabet. Romanization
Romanization
can be used for various purposes, such as rendering of proper names and place names in foreign-language contexts, or for informal writing of Bulgarian in environments where Cyrillic
Cyrillic
is not easily available. Official use of romanization by Bulgarian authorities is found, for instance, in identity documents and in road signage
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