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Cellular Network
A cellular network or mobile network is a communication network where the last link is wireless. The network is distributed over land areas called cells, each served by at least one fixed-location transceiver, but more normally three cell sites or base transceiver stations. These base stations provide the cell with the network coverage which can be used for transmission of voice, data and others. A cell typically uses a different set of frequencies from neighboring cells, to avoid interference and provide guaranteed service quality within each cell.[1] When joined together these cells provide radio coverage over a wide geographic area
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Antenna Gain
In electromagnetics, an antenna's power gain or simply gain is a key performance number which combines the antenna's directivity and electrical efficiency. In a transmitting antenna, the gain describes how well the antenna converts input power into radio waves headed in a specified direction. In a receiving antenna, the gain describes how well the antenna converts radio waves arriving from a specified direction into electrical power. When no direction is specified, "gain" is understood to refer to the peak value of the gain, the gain in the direction of the antenna's main lobe
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Monopole Antenna
A monopole antenna is a class of radio antenna consisting of a straight rod-shaped conductor, often mounted perpendicularly over some type of conductive surface, called a ground plane. The driving signal from the transmitter is applied, or for receiving antennas the output signal to the receiver is taken, between the lower end of the monopole and the ground plane. One side of the antenna feedline is attached to the lower end of the monopole, and the other side is attached to the ground plane, which is often the Earth. This contrasts with a dipole antenna which consists of two identical rod conductors, with the signal from the transmitter applied between the two halves of the antenna. The monopole is a resonant antenna; the rod functions as an open resonator for radio waves, oscillating with standing waves of voltage and current along its length. Therefore, the length of the antenna is determined by the wavelength of the radio waves it is used with
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Antenna Boresight
Antenna
Antenna
(pl
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Whip Antenna
A whip antenna is an antenna consisting of a straight flexible wire or rod. The bottom end of the whip is connected to the radio receiver or transmitter. The antenna is designed to be flexible so that it does not break easily, and the name is derived from the whip-like motion that it exhibits when disturbed. Whip antennas for portable radios are often made of a series of interlocking telescoping metal tubes, so they can be retracted when not in use. Longer ones, made for mounting on vehicles and structures, are made of a flexible fiberglass rod around a wire core and can be up to 35 ft (10 m) long. The length of the whip antenna is determined by the wavelength of the radio waves it is used with. The most common type is the quarter-wave whip, which is approximately one-quarter of a wavelength long. Whips are the most common type of monopole antenna, and are used in the higher frequency HF, VHF and UHF radio bands
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ITU Radio Regulations
The ITU Radio Regulations (short: RR) regulates on law of nations scale radiocommunication services and the utilisation of radio frequencies. It is the supplementation to the Constitution and Convention of the International Telecommunication Union
International Telecommunication Union
(ITU Constitution and Convention). In line to the ITU Constitution and Convention and the ITU International Telecommunication Regulations (ITR), this ITU Radio Regulations belong to the basic documents of the International Telecommunication Union
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Dipole Antenna
In radio and telecommunications a dipole antenna or doublet[1] is the simplest and most widely used class of antenna.[2][3] The dipole is any one of a class of antennas producing a radiation pattern approximating that of an elementary electric dipole with a radiating structure supporting a line current so energized that the current has only one node at each end.[4] A dipole antenna commonly consists of two identical conductive elements[5] such as metal wires or rods, which are usually bilaterally symmetrical.[3][6][7] The driving current from the transmitter is applied, or for receiving antennas the output signal to the receiver is taken, between the two halves of the antenna. Each side of the feedline to the transmitter or receiver is connected to one of the conductors
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Main Lobe
In a radio antenna's radiation pattern, the main lobe, or main beam is the lobe containing the maximum power. This is the lobe that exhibits the greatest field strength. The radiation pattern of most antennas shows a pattern of "lobes" at various angles, directions where the radiated signal strength reaches a maximum, separated by "nulls", angles at which the radiation falls to zero. In a directional antenna in which the objective is to emit the radio waves in one direction, the lobe in that direction is designed to have higher field strength than the others, so on a graph of the radiation pattern it appears biggest; this is the main lobe. The other lobes are called "sidelobes", and usually represent unwanted radiation in undesired directions
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Antenna Efficiency
Antenna efficiency, η, is a term associated with aperture antennas, e.g., parabolic dishes. Antenna efficiency
Antenna efficiency
is different from and contrasted with radiation efficiency, which applies to any antenna type. Definition[edit] Antenna efficiency
Antenna efficiency
is defined as the ratio of the aperture effective area, Ae to its actual physical area, A.[1] It describes the percentage of the physical aperture area which actually captures radio frequency (RF) energy
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Antenna Equivalent Radius
The equivalent radius of an antenna conductor is defined as:[1][2] r e = exp ⁡ 1 L 2 ∮ ℓ ⁡ ∮ ℓ ⁡ ln ⁡ x − y d x d y displaystyle r_ e =exp left 1 over L^ 2 oint _ ell oint _ ell ln vert boldsymbol x - boldsymbol y vert ;dx;dyright where ℓ displaystyle scriptstyle ell denotes the conductor's circumference, L displaystyle scriptstyle L is the length of the circumference,
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Municipal Wireless Network
Municipal wireless network
Municipal wireless network
(Municipal Wi-Fi, Muni Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
or Muni-Fi) is a citywide wireless network. This is usually done by providing municipal broadband via Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
to large parts or all of a municipal area by deploying a wireless mesh network. The typical deployment design uses hundreds of wireless access points deployed outdoors, often on poles
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Radio
Radio
Radio
is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.[n 1] When radio waves strike an electrical conductor, the oscillating fields induce an alternating current in the conductor. The information in the waves can be extracted and transformed back into its original form. Radio
Radio
systems need a transmitter to modulate (change) some property of the energy produced to impress a signal on it, for example using amplitude modulation or angle modulation (which can be frequency modulation or phase modulation). Radio
Radio
systems also need an antenna to convert electric currents into radio waves, and radio waves into an electric current. An antenna can be used for both transmitting and receiving
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Radio Masts And Towers
Radio
Radio
masts and towers are, typically, tall structures designed to support antennas (also known as aerials) for telecommunications and broadcasting, including television. There are two main types: guyed and self-supporting structures
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Electrical Length
In telecommunications and electrical engineering, electrical length (or phase length) refers to the length of an electrical conductor in terms of the phase shift introduced by transmission over that conductor[1] at some frequency.Contents1 Usage of the term 2 Phase length 3 Velocity factor 4 Antennas4.1 Changing electrical length by loading 4.2 Advantages 4.3 Disadvantages 4.4 Technical realization4.4.1 Application5 See also 6 References 7 Further readingUsage of the term[edit] Depending on the specific usage, the term "electrical length" is used rather than simple physical length to incorporate one or more of the following three concepts:When one is concerned with the number of wavelengths, or phase, involved in a wave's transit over a segment of transmission line especially, one may simply specify that electrical length, while specification of a physical length, frequency, or velocity factor is omitted
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Wireless Electronic Devices And Health
The World Health Organization
World Health Organization
(WHO) has researched electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and their alleged effects on public health, concluding that such exposures within recommended limits do not produce any known adverse health effect.[1][2] In response to public concern, the WHO established the International EMF Project in 1996 to assess the scientific evidence of possible health effects of EMF in the frequency range from 0 to 300 GHz. They have stated that although extensive research has been conducted into possible health effects of exposure to many parts of the frequ
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Mobile Phone Radiation And Health
The effect of mobile phone radiation on human health is a subject of interest and study worldwide, as a result of the enormous increase in mobile phone usage throughout the world. As of 2015[update], there were 7.4 billion subscriptions worldwide, though the actual number of users is lower as many users own more than one mobile phone.[1] Mobile phones use electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range (450–3800 MHz). Other digital wireless systems, such as data communication networks, produce similar radiation. The World Health Organization
World Health Organization
states that "A large number of studies have been performed over the last two decades to assess whether mobile phones pose a potential health risk
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