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Cellular Membrane
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).[1][2] It consists of a lipid bilayer with embedded proteins. The basic function of the cell membrane is to protect the cell from its surroundings. The cell membrane controls the movement of substances in and out of cells and organelles. In this way, it is selectively permeable to ions and organic molecules.[3] In addition, cell membranes are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as cell adhesion, ion conductivity and cell signalling and serve as the attachment surface for several extracellular structures, including the cell wall, the carbohydrate layer called the glycocalyx, and the intracellular network of protein fibers called the cytoskeleton
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Eukaryote
Eukaryotic organisms that cannot be classified under the kingdoms Plantae, Animalia
Animalia
or Fungi
Fungi
are sometimes grouped in the kingdom Protista.Eukaryotes (/juːˈkærioʊt, -ət/) are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike prokaryotes ( Bacteria
Bacteria
and Archaea), which have no membrane-bound organelles.[3][4][5] Eukaryotes belong to the domain Eukaryota
Eukaryota
or Eukarya. Their name comes from the Greek εὖ (eu, "well" or "true") and κάρυον (karyon, "nut" or "kernel").[6] Eukaryotic cells also contain other membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus, and in addition, some cells of plants and algae contain chloroplasts
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Phosphatidylcholine
Phosphatidylcholines (PC) are a class of phospholipids that incorporate choline as a headgroup. They are a major component of biological membranes and can be easily obtained from a variety of readily available sources, such as egg yolk or soybeans, from which they are mechanically or chemically extracted using hexane. They are also a member of the lecithin group of yellow-brownish fatty substances occurring in animal and plant tissues. Dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (a.k.a. lecithin) is a major component of pulmonary surfactant and is often used in the L/S ratio
L/S ratio
to calculate fetal lung maturity
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Garth L. Nicolson
Garth L. Nicolson (born October 1, 1943)[1] is an American biochemist who made a landmark scientific model for cell membrane, known as the Fluid Mosaic Model. He is the founder of The Institute for Molecular Medicine at California, and he serves as the President, Chief Scientific Officer and Emeritus Professor of Molecular Pathology. He is also Conjoint Professor in the Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Newcastle, Australia. During the outbreak of the Gulf War syndrome, he was the leading authority on the study of the cause, treatment and prevention of the disease
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Fluid Mosaic Model
The fluid mosaic model explains various observations regarding the structure of functional cell membranes.According to this model, there is a lipid bilayer in which the protein molecules are embedded. The lipid bilayer gives fluidity and elasticity to membrane. Small amounts of carbohydrates are also found in cell membrane. The model, which was devised by SJ Singer and GL Nicolson in 1972, describes the cell membrane as a two-dimensional liquid that restricts the lateral diffusion of membrane components. Such domains are defined by the existence of regions within the membrane with special lipid and protein composition that promote the formation of lipid rafts or protein and glycoprotein complexes
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Macromolecule
A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers). They are typically composed of thousands of atoms or more
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Hugo De Vries
Hugo Marie de Vries ForMemRS[1] (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈɦyɣoː də ˈvris]; 16 February 1848 – 21 May 1935)[2] was a Dutch botanist and one of the first geneticists. He is known chiefly for suggesting the concept of genes, rediscovering the laws of heredity in the 1890s while unaware of Gregor Mendel's work, for introducing the term "mutation", and for developing a mutation theory of evolution.Contents1 Early life 2 Early career 3 Definition of the gene 4 Rediscovery of genetics 5 Mutation
Mutation
theory 6 Honors and retirement 7 Books 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksEarly life[edit] De Vries was born in 1848, the eldest son of Gerrit de Vries (1818–1900), a lawyer and deacon in the Mennonite congregation in Haarlem
Haarlem
and later Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 1872 until 1874,[3] and Maria Everardina Reuvens (1823–1914), daughter of a professor in archaeology at Leiden University
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Wilhelm Pfeffer
Wilhelm Friedrich Philipp Pfeffer (9 March 1845 – 31 January 1920) was a German botanist and plant physiologist born in Grebenstein.Contents1 Academic career 2 Scientific work 3 Written works 4 ReferencesAcademic career[edit] He studied chemistry and pharmacy at the University of Göttingen,[1] where his instructors included Friedrich Wöhler
Friedrich Wöhler
(1800-1882), William Eduard Weber (1804-1891) and Wilhelm Rudolph Fittig
Wilhelm Rudolph Fittig
(1835-1910). Afterwards, he furthered his education at the universities of Marburg and Berlin. At Berlin, he studied under Alexander Braun
Alexander Braun
(1805-1877) and was an assistant to Nathanael Pringsheim
Nathanael Pringsheim
(1823-1894)
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Wilhelm Hofmeister
Hofmeister may refer to: Hofmeister (surname) Hofmeister (office), medieval and early modern court position Hofmeister Lager, a UK lager brand Friedrich
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Vesicle (biology)
In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer. Vesicles form naturally during the processes of secretion (exocytosis), uptake (endocytosis) and transport of materials within the cytoplasm. Alternatively, they may be prepared artificially, in which case they are called liposomes (not to be confused with lysosomes). If there is only one phospholipid bilayer, they are called unilamellar liposome vesicles; otherwise they are called multilamellar. The membrane enclosing the vesicle is also a lamellar phase, similar to that of the plasma membrane and vesicles can fuse with the plasma membrane to release their contents outside the cell. Vesicles can also fuse with other organelles within the cell. Vesicles perform a variety of functions. Because it is separated from the cytosol, the inside of the vesicle can be made to be different from the cytosolic environment
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Exocytosis
Exocytosis
Exocytosis
(/ˌɛksoʊsaɪˈtoʊsɪs/[1][2]) is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (e.g., neurotransmitters and proteins) out of the cell (exo- + cytosis) by expelling them through an energy-dependent process. Exocytosis
Exocytosis
and its counterpart, endocytosis, are used by all cells because most chemical substances important to them are large polar molecules that cannot pass through the hydrophobic portion of the cell membrane by passive means. In exocytosis, membrane-bound secretory vesicles are carried to the cell membrane, and their contents (i.e., water-soluble molecules) are secreted into the extracellular environment. This secretion is possible because the vesicle transiently fuses with the outer cell membrane
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Bleb (cell Biology)
In cell biology, a bleb is a bulge or protrusion of the plasma membrane of a cell, human bioparticulate or abscess with an internal environment similar to that of a simple cell, characterized by a spherical, bulky morphology.[2] It is characterized by the decoupling of the cytoskeleton from the plasma membrane, degrading the internal structure of the cell, allowing the flexibility required to allow the cell to separate into individual bulges or pockets of the intercellular matrix.[2] Most commonly, blebs are seen in apoptosis (programmed cell death) but are also seen in other non-apoptotic functions
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Endocytosis
Endocytosis
Endocytosis
is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process
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Phosphatidylethanolamine
Phosphatidylethanolamines are a class of phospholipids found in biological membranes.[1] They are synthesized by the addition of cytidine diphosphate-ethanolamine to diglycerides, releasing cytidine monophosphate. S-Adenosyl methionine
S-Adenosyl methionine
can subsequently methylate the amine of phosphatidylethanolamines to yield phosphatidylcholines. It can mainly be found in the inner (cytoplasmic) leaflet of the lipid bilayer.[2]Contents1 Function1.1 In cells 1.2 In humans 1.3 In bacteria2 Structure 3 Synthesis3.1 Regulation4 Presence in food, health issues 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksFunction[edit]The major membrane lipids PtdCho - Phosphatidylcholine; PtdEtn - Phosphatidylethanolamine; PtdIns -Phosphatidylinositol; PtdSer - Phosphatidylserine.In cells[edit] Phosphatidylethanolamines are found in all living cells, composing 25% of all phospholipids
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Echinoderm
Homalozoa
Homalozoa
† Gill & Caster, 1960 Homostelea
Homostelea
† Homoiostelea †
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Phosphatidylinositol
Phosphatidylinositol
Phosphatidylinositol
consists of a family of lipids as illustrated on the right, a class of the phosphatidylglycerides. In such molecules the isomer of the inositol group is assumed to be the myo- conformer unless otherwise stated. Typically phosphatidylinositols form a minor component on the cytosolic side of eukaryotic cell membranes. The phosphate group gives the molecules a negative charge at physiological pH. The form of phosphatidylinositol comprising the isomer muco-inositol acts as a sensory receptor in the taste function of the sensory system
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