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Celestial Spheres
The celestial spheres, or celestial orbs, were the fundamental entities of the cosmological models developed by Plato, Eudoxus, Aristotle, Ptolemy, Copernicus, and others. In these celestial models, the apparent motions of the fixed stars and planets are accounted for by treating them as embedded in rotating spheres made of an aetherial, transparent fifth element (quintessence), like jewels set in orbs. Since it was believed that the fixed stars did not change their positions relative to one another, it was argued that they must be on the surface of a single starry sphere.[1] In modern thought, the orbits of the planets are viewed as the paths of those planets through mostly empty space
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Bede
Bede
Bede
(/biːd/ BEED; Old English: Bǣda, Bēda; 672/3 – 26 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, Venerable
Venerable
Bede, and Bede
Bede
the Venerable (Latin: Bēda Venerābilis), was an English monk at the monastery of St. Peter and its companion monastery of St. Paul in the Kingdom of Northumbria of the Angles
Angles
(contemporarily Monkwearmouth– Jarrow
Jarrow
Abbey in Tyne and Wear, England). Born on lands likely belonging to the Monkwearmouth monastery, Bede
Bede
was sent there at the age of seven and later joined Abbot
Abbot
Ceolfrith
Ceolfrith
at the Jarrow
Jarrow
monastery, both of whom survived a plague that struck in 686, an outbreak that killed a majority of the population there
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Mercury (planet)
Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System. Its orbital period around the Sun
Sun
of 87.97 days is the shortest of all the planets in the Solar System. It is named after the Roman deity Mercury, the messenger of the gods. Like Venus, Mercury orbits the Sun
Sun
within Earth's orbit as an inferior planet, and never exceeds 28° away from the Sun. When viewed from Earth, this proximity to the Sun
Sun
means the planet can only be seen near the western or eastern horizon during the early evening or early morning. At this time it may appear as a bright star-like object, but is often far more difficult to observe than Venus
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Xenophanes
Xenophanes
Xenophanes
of Colophon (/zəˈnɒfəniːz/;[1][2] Ancient Greek: Ξενοφάνης ὁ Κολοφώνιος [ksenopʰánɛːs ho kolopʰɔ̌ːnios]; c. 570 – c. 475 BC)[3] was a Greek philosopher, theologian, poet, and social and religious critic. Xenophanes
Xenophanes
lived a life of travel, having left Ionia
Ionia
at the age of 25 and continuing to travel throughout the Greek world for another 67 years.[4] Some scholars say he lived in exile in Sicily.[5] Knowledge of his views comes from fragments of his poetry, surviving as quotations by later Greek writers. To judge from these, his elegiac and iambic[6] poetry criticized and satirized a wide range of ideas, including Homer
Homer
and Hesiod, the belief in the pantheon of anthropomorphic gods and the Greeks' veneration of athleticism
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Parmenides
Parmenides
Parmenides
of Elea (/pɑːrˈmɛnɪdiːz əv ˈɛliə/; Greek: Παρμενίδης ὁ Ἐλεάτης; fl. late sixth or early fifth century BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher from Elea in Magna Graecia
Magna Graecia
(Greater Greece, included Southern Italy). He was the founder of the Eleatic school of philosophy. The single known work of Parmenides
Parmenides
is a poem, On Nature, which has survived only in fragmentary form. In this poem, Parmenides
Parmenides
describes two views of reality. In "the way of truth" (a part of the poem), he explains how reality (coined as "what-is") is one, change is impossible, and existence is timeless, uniform, necessary, and unchanging
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Timaeus (dialogue)
Timaeus (/taɪˈmiːəs/; Greek: Τίμαιος, Timaios, pronounced [tǐmaɪ̯os]) is one of Plato's dialogues, mostly in the form of a long monologue given by the title character Timaeus of Locri, written c. 360 BC. The work puts forward speculation on the nature of the physical world and human beings and is followed by the dialogue Critias. Participants in the dialogue include Socrates, Timaeus, Hermocrates, and Critias
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Metaphysics (Aristotle)
[*]: Authenticity disputed strikethrough: Generally agreed to be spuriousv t e Metaphysics
Metaphysics
(Greek: τὰ μετὰ τὰ φυσικά; Latin: Metaphysica[1]) is one of the principal works of Aristotle
Aristotle
and the first major work of the branch of philosophy with the same name. The principal subject is "being qua being," or being insofar as it is being. It examines what can be asserted about any being insofar as it is and not because of any special qualities it has
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Georg Von Peuerbach
Georg von Peuerbach
Peuerbach
(also Purbach, Peurbach, Purbachius; born May 30, 1423 – April 8, 1461) was an Austrian astronomer, mathematician and instrument maker, best known for his streamlined presentation of Ptolemaic astronomy
Ptolemaic astronomy
in the Theoricae Novae Planetarum.Contents1 Biography 2 Works 3 Notes 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksBiography[edit] Little is known of Peuerbach's life before he enrolled at the University of Vienna
Vienna
in 1446.[2] He received his Bachelor of Arts in 1448
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Cosmos
The cosmos (UK: /ˈkɒzmɒs/, US: /-moʊs/) is the universe regarded as a complex and orderly system; the opposite of chaos.[1]Contents1 Etymology 2 Cosmology2.1 Philosophical cosmology 2.2 Physical cosmology 2.3 Religious cosmology3 See also 4 References 5 External linksEtymology[edit] The philosopher Pythagoras
Pythagoras
first used the term cosmos (Ancient Greek: κόσμος) for the order of the universe.[2][3] The term became part of modern language in the 19th century when geographer–polymath
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Moon
The Moon
The Moon
is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth, being Earth's only permanent natural satellite. It is the fifth-largest natural satellite in the Solar System, and the largest among planetary satellites relative to the size of the planet that it orbits (its primary). Following Jupiter's satellite Io, the Moon
Moon
is the second-densest satellite in the Solar System
Solar System
among those whose densities are known. The Moon
The Moon
is thought to have formed about 4.51 billion years ago, not long after Earth
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Venus
Venus
Venus
is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.[12] It has the longest rotation period (243 days) of any planet in the Solar System
Solar System
and rotates in the opposite direction to most other planets (meaning the Sun
Sun
would rise in the west and set in the east).[13] It does not have any natural satellites. It is named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty
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Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
Greece
was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages
Greek Dark Ages
of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (c. 600 AD). Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the Byzantine
Byzantine
era.[1] Roughly three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse
Late Bronze Age collapse
of Mycenaean Greece, Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the period of Archaic Greece
Archaic Greece
and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin. This was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC
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Sun
The Sun
Sun
is the star at the center of the Solar System. It is a nearly perfect sphere of hot plasma,[14][15] with internal convective motion that generates a magnetic field via a dynamo process.[16] It is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth. Its diameter is about 1.39 million kilometers, i.e. 109 times that of Earth, and its mass is about 330,000 times that of Earth, accounting for about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System.[17] About three quarters of the Sun's mass consists of hydrogen (~73%); the rest is mostly helium (~25%), with much smaller quantities of heavier elements, including oxygen, carbon, neon, and iron.[18] The Sun
Sun
is a G-type main-sequence star
G-type main-sequence star
(G2V) based on its spectral class. As such, it is informally referred to as a yellow dwarf
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Mars
Mars
Mars
is the fourth planet from the Sun
Sun
and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System
Solar System
after Mercury. In English, Mars
Mars
carries a name of the Roman god of war, and is often referred to as the "Red Planet"[14][15] because the reddish iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance that is distinctive among the astronomical bodies visible to the naked eye.[16] Mars
Mars
is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon
Moon
and the valleys, deserts, and polar ice caps of Earth. The rotational period and seasonal cycles of Mars
Mars
are likewise similar to those of Earth, as is the tilt that produces the seasons
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Jupiter
by volume:6999890000000000000♠89%±2.0% hydrogen (H 2)6999100000000000000♠10%±2.0% helium (He)6997300000000000000♠0.3%±0.1% methane (CH 4)6996259999999999999♠0.026%±0.004% ammonia (NH 3)6995280000000000000♠0.0028%±0.001% hydrogen deuteride (HD)6994599999999999999♠0.0006%±0.0002% ethane (C 2H 6)6994400000000000000♠0.0004%±0.0004% water (H 2O)Ices:ammonia (NH 3) water (H 2O) ammonium hydrosulfide (NH 4SH) Jupiter
Jupiter
is the fifth planet from the Sun
Sun
and the largest in the Solar System. It is a giant planet with a mass one-thousandth that of the Sun, but two-and-a-half times that of all the other planets in the Solar System
Solar System
combined. Jupiter
Jupiter
and Saturn
Saturn
are gas giants; the other two giant planets, Uranus
Uranus
and Neptune
Neptune
are ice giants
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Saturn
by volume:6999963000000000000♠96.3%±2.4% hydrogen (H 2)6998325000000000000♠3.25%±2.4% helium (He)6997450000000000000♠0.45%±0.2% methane (CH 4)6996125000000000000♠0.0125%±0.0075% ammonia (NH 3)6996109999999999999♠0.0110%±0.0058% hydrogen deuteride (HD)6994700000000000000♠0.0007%±0.00015% ethane (C 2H 6)Ices:ammonia (NH 3) water (H 2O) ammonium hydrosulfide (NH 4SH) Saturn
Saturn
is the sixth planet from the Sun
Sun
and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter
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