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Celestial Spheres
The CELESTIAL SPHERES, or CELESTIAL ORBS, were the fundamental entities of the cosmological models developed by Plato
Plato
, Eudoxus , Aristotle
Aristotle
, Ptolemy
Ptolemy
, Copernicus
Copernicus
, and others. In these celestial models, the apparent motions of the fixed stars and planets are accounted for by treating them as embedded in rotating spheres made of an aetherial, transparent fifth element (quintessence ), like jewels set in orbs. Since it was believed that the fixed stars did not change their positions relative to one another, it was argued that they must be on the surface of a single starry sphere. In modern thought, the orbits of the planets are viewed as the paths of those planets through mostly empty space
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Georg Von Peuerbach
GEORG VON PEUERBACH (also PURBACH, PEURBACH, PURBACHIUS) (born May 30, 1423 – April 8, 1461) was an Austrian astronomer , mathematician and instrument maker, best known for his streamlined presentation of Ptolemaic astronomy
Ptolemaic astronomy
in the Theoricae Novae Planetarum. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Works * 3 Notes * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links BIOGRAPHYLittle is known of Peuerbach's life before he enrolled at the University of Vienna
Vienna
in 1446. He received his Bachelor of Arts in 1448. His curriculum was most likely composed primarily of humanities courses, as was usual at the time. His knowledge of astronomy probably derived from independent study, as there were no professors of astronomy at the University of Vienna
Vienna
during Peuerbach's enrollment
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Cosmos
The COSMOS (UK : /ˈkɒzmɒs/ , US : /ˈkɒzmoʊs/ ) is the universe regarded as a complex and orderly system; the opposite of chaos . The philosopher Pythagoras
Pythagoras
used the term cosmos ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: κόσμος) for the order of the universe, but the term was not part of modern language until the 19th century geographer and polymath, Alexander von Humboldt
Alexander von Humboldt
, resurrected the use of the word from the ancient Greek, assigned it to his multi-volume treatise, Kosmos , which influenced modern and somewhat holistic perception of the universe as one interacting entity . CONTENTS * 1 Cosmology
Cosmology
* 2 Theology
Theology
* 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links COSMOLOGY The Ancient and Medieval cosmos as depicted in Peter Apian 's Cosmographia (Antwerp, 1539)
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Moon
The MOON is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth
Earth
, being Earth's only permanent natural satellite . It is the fifth-largest natural satellite in the Solar System
Solar System
, and the largest among planetary satellites relative to the size of the planet that it orbits (its primary ). Following Jupiter
Jupiter
's satellite Io , the Moon
Moon
is the second-densest satellite among those whose densities are known. The Moon is thought to have formed about 4.51 billion years ago, not long after Earth
Earth
. The most widely accepted explanation is that the Moon
Moon
formed from the debris left over after a giant impact between Earth
Earth
and a Mars
Mars
-sized body called Theia
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Metaphysics (Aristotle)
: Authenticity disputed strikethrough: Generally agreed to be spurious * v * t * e METAPHYSICS (Greek : τὰ μετὰ τὰ φυσικά; Latin
Latin
: Metaphysica ) is one of the principal works of Aristotle
Aristotle
and the first major work of the branch of philosophy with the same name. The principal subject is "being qua being," or being insofar as it is being. It examines what can be asserted about any being insofar as it is and not because of any special qualities it has. Also covered are different kinds of causation , form and matter , the existence of mathematical objects , and a prime-mover God
God

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Timaeus (dialogue)
TIMAEUS (/taɪˈmiːəs/ ; Greek : Τίμαιος, Timaios, pronounced ) is one of Plato\'s dialogues , mostly in the form of a long monologue given by the title character Timaeus of Locri , written c. 360 BC. The work puts forward speculation on the nature of the physical world and human beings and is followed by the dialogue Critias . Participants in the dialogue include Socrates
Socrates
, Timaeus, Hermocrates , and Critias . Some scholars believe that it is not the Critias of the Thirty Tyrants who is appearing in this dialogue, but his grandfather, who is also named Critias. It has been suggested that Timaeus influenced a book about Pythagoras
Pythagoras
, written by Philolaus
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Anaximenes Of Miletus
ANAXIMENES OF MILETUS (/ˌænækˈsɪməˌniːz/ ; Greek : Ἀναξιμένης ὁ Μιλήσιος; c. 585 – c. 528 BCE) was an Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
Pre-Socratic
Pre-Socratic
philosopher active in the latter half of the 6th century BC. One of the three Milesian philosophers, he is identified as a younger friend or student of Anaximander
Anaximander
. Anaximenes, like others in his school of thought, practiced material monism . This tendency to identify one specific underlying reality made up of a material thing is what Anaximenes is principally known for today
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Pythagoras
PYTHAGORAS OF SAMOS (US : /pᵻˈθæɡərəs/ ; UK : /paɪˈθæɡərəs/ ; Greek : Πυθαγόρας ὁ Σάμιος Pythagóras ho Sámios " Pythagoras
Pythagoras
the Samian ", or simply Πυθαγόρας; Πυθαγόρης in Ionian Greek ; c. 570–495 BC) was an Ionian Greek philosopher , mathematician , and putative founder of the Pythagoreanism
Pythagoreanism
movement. He is often revered as a great mathematician and scientist and is best known for the Pythagorean theorem which bears his name. Legend and obfuscation cloud his work, so it is uncertain whether he truly contributed much to mathematics or natural philosophy . Many of the accomplishments credited to Pythagoras
Pythagoras
may actually have been accomplishments of his colleagues or successors
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Xenophanes
XENOPHANES OF COLOPHON (/zəˈnɒfəniːz/ ; Ancient Greek : Ξενοφάνης ὁ Κολοφώνιος ; c. 570 – c. 475 BC) was a Greek philosopher , theologian , poet , and social and religious critic . Xenophanes
Xenophanes
lived a life of travel, having left Ionia
Ionia
at the age of 25 and continuing to travel throughout the Greek world for another 67 years. Some scholars say he lived in exile in Sicily
Sicily
. Knowledge of his views comes from fragments of his poetry, surviving as quotations by later Greek writers. To judge from these, his elegiac and iambic poetry criticized and satirized a wide range of ideas, including Homer
Homer
and Hesiod
Hesiod
, the belief in the pantheon of anthropomorphic gods and the Greeks' veneration of athleticism
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Mercury (planet)
MERCURY is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System
Solar System
. Its orbital period around the Sun
Sun
of 88 days is the shortest of all the planets in the Solar System. It is named after the Roman deity Mercury , the messenger to the gods. Like Venus
Venus
, Mercury orbits the Sun
Sun
within Earth's orbit as an inferior planet , so it can only be seen visually in the morning or the evening sky, and never exceeds 28° away from the Sun. Also, like Venus
Venus
and the Moon, the planet displays the complete range of phases as it moves around its orbit relative to Earth. Seen from Earth, this cycle of phases reoccurs approximately every 116 days, the so-called synodic period . Although Mercury can appear as a bright star-like object when viewed from Earth, its proximity to the Sun
Sun
often makes it more difficult to see than Venus
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Venus
VENUS is the second planet from the Sun
Sun
, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth
Earth
days. It has the longest rotation period (243 days) of any planet in the Solar System
Solar System
and rotates in the opposite direction to most other planets. It has no natural satellites . It is named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty . It is the second-brightest natural object in the night sky after the Moon
Moon
, reaching an apparent magnitude of −4.6 – bright enough to cast shadows at night and, rarely, visible to the naked eye in broad daylight. Orbiting within Earth\'s orbit , Venus
Venus
is an inferior planet and never appears to venture far from the Sun; its maximum angular distance from the Sun (elongation ) is 47.8°
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Trepidation (astronomy)
According to a now-obsolete medieval theory of astronomy , trepidation is oscillation in the precession of the equinoxes . The theory was popular from the 9th to the 16th centuries. The origin of the theory of trepidation comes from the Small Commentary to the Handy Tables written by Theon of Alexandria in the 4th century CE. In precession , the equinoxes appear to move slowly through the ecliptic , completing a revolution in approximately 25,800 years (according to modern astronomers). Theon states that certain (unnamed) ancient astrologers believed that the precession, rather than being a steady unending motion, instead reverses direction every 640 years. The equinoxes, in this theory, move through the ecliptic at the rate of 1 degree in 80 years over a span of 8 degrees, after which they suddenly reverse direction and travel back over the same 8 degrees. Theon describes but did not endorse this theory
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Obliquity Of The Ecliptic
In astronomy , AXIAL TILT, also known as OBLIQUITY, is the angle between an object's rotational axis and its orbital axis, or, equivalently, the angle between its equatorial plane and orbital plane . It differs from orbital inclination . At an obliquity of zero, the two axes point in the same direction; i.e., the rotational axis is perpendicular to the orbital plane. Over the course of an orbit, the obliquity usually does not change considerably, and the orientation of the axis remains the same relative to the background stars . This causes one pole to be directed more toward the Sun on one side of the orbit , and the other pole on the other side — the cause of the seasons on the Earth . Earth's obliquity oscillates between 22.1 and 24.5 degrees on a 41,000-year cycle; the earth's mean obliquity is currently 23°26′13.2″ (or 23.43699°) and decreasing
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Bede
BEDE (/ˈbiːd/ BEED ; Old English : Bǣda or Bēda; 672/3 – 26 May 735), also known as SAINT BEDE, VENERABLE BEDE, and BEDE THE VENERABLE ( Latin
Latin
: Bēda Venerābilis), was an English monk at the monastery of St. Peter and its companion monastery of St. Paul in the Kingdom of Northumbria
Kingdom of Northumbria
of the Angles
Angles
(contemporarily Monkwearmouth– Jarrow
Jarrow
Abbey in Tyne and Wear , England
England
). He is well known as an author and scholar, and his most famous work, Ecclesiastical History of the English People
Ecclesiastical History of the English People
gained him the title "The Father of English History "
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Axial Precession (astronomy)
In astronomy , AXIAL PRECESSION is a gravity-induced, slow, and continuous change in the orientation of an astronomical body's rotational axis . In particular, it can refer to the gradual shift in the orientation of Earth 's axis of rotation, which, similar to a wobbling top, traces out a pair of cones joined at their apices in a cycle of approximately 26,000 years. The term "precession" typically refers only to this largest part of the motion; other changes in the alignment of Earth's axis—nutation and polar motion —are much smaller in magnitude. Earth's precession was historically called the PRECESSION OF THE EQUINOXES, because the equinoxes moved westward along the ecliptic relative to the fixed stars , opposite to the yearly motion of the Sun along the ecliptic
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Saturn
by volume: ≈ 96% hydrogen (H 2) ≈ 3% helium (He) ≈ 0.4% methane (CH 4) ≈ 0.01% ammonia (NH 3) ≈ 0.01% hydrogen deuteride (HD) 0.0007% ethane (C 2H 6) ICES: * ammonia (NH 3) * water (H 2O) * ammonium hydrosulfide (NH 4SH) SATURN is the sixth planet from the Sun
Sun
and the second-largest in the Solar System
Solar System
, after Jupiter
Jupiter
. It is a gas giant with an average radius about nine times that of Earth
Earth
. Although it has only one-eighth the average density of Earth, with its larger volume Saturn is just over 95 times more massive. Saturn
Saturn
is named after the Roman god of agriculture ; its astronomical symbol (♄) represents the god's sickle . Saturn's interior is probably composed of a core of iron–nickel and rock (silicon and oxygen compounds)
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