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CdmaOne
Interim Standard 95 (IS-95) was the first ever CDMA-based digital cellular technology. It was developed by Qualcomm
Qualcomm
and later adopted as a standard by the Telecommunications Industry Association
Telecommunications Industry Association
in TIA/EIA/ IS-95
IS-95
release published in 1995. The proprietary name for IS-95
IS-95
is cdmaOne. It is a 2G mobile telecommunications standard that uses CDMA, a multiple access scheme for digital radio, to send voice, data and signaling data (such as a dialed telephone number) between mobile telephones and cell sites. CDMA or "code division multiple access" is a digital radio system that transmits streams of bits (PN codes). CDMA permits several radios to share the same frequencies
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Advanced Mobile Phone System
Advanced Mobile Phone System
Advanced Mobile Phone System
(AMPS) is an analog mobile phone system standard developed by Bell Labs, and officially introduced in the Americas
Americas
on October 13, 1983,[1][2][3] Israel
Israel
in 1986, Australia
Australia
in 1987, Singapore
Singapore
in 1988, and Pakistan
Pakistan
in 1990.[4] It was the primary analog mobile phone system in North America
North America
(and other locales) through the 1980s and into the 2000s. As of February 18, 2008, carriers in the United States were no longer required to support AMPS and companies such as AT&T and Verizon have discontinued this service permanently
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Mobile Radio Telephone
Mobile radio telephone
Mobile radio telephone
systems were telephone systems of wireless type that preceded the modern cellular mobile form of telephony technology. Since they were the predecessors of the first generation of cellular telephones, these systems are sometimes retroactively referred to as pre-cellular (or sometimes zero generation, that is, 0G) systems. Technologies used in pre-cellular systems included the Push to Talk (PTT or manual), Mobile Telephone
Telephone
System (MTS), Improved Mobile Telephone
Telephone
Service (IMTS), and Advanced Mobile Telephone
Telephone
System (AMTS) systems
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Autocorrelation
Autocorrelation, also known as serial correlation, is the correlation of a signal with a delayed copy of itself as a function of delay. Informally, it is the similarity between observations as a function of the time lag between them
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Handoff
In cellular telecommunications, the terms handover or handoff refer to the process of transferring an ongoing call or data session from one channel connected to the core network to another channel. In satellite communications it is the process of transferring satellite control responsibility from one earth station to another without loss or interruption of service.Contents1 Handover or handoff 2 Purpose 3 Types 4 Comparison 5 Possibility 6 Implementations 7 Reasons for failure 8 Vertical handover 9 Handoff Prioritization 10 Inter and Intra System Handoff 11 See also 12 References 13 External links Handover or handoff[edit] American English
American English
uses the term handoff, and this is most commonly used within some American organizations such as 3GPP2 and in American originated technologies such as CDMA2000
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Viterbi Decoder
A Viterbi decoder
Viterbi decoder
uses the Viterbi algorithm
Viterbi algorithm
for decoding a bitstream that has been encoded using convolutional code or trellis code. There are other algorithms for decoding a convolutionally encoded stream (for example, the Fano algorithm). The Viterbi algorithm
Viterbi algorithm
is the most resource-consuming, but it does the maximum likelihood decoding. It is most often used for decoding convolutional codes with constraint lengths k<=3, but values up to k=15 are used in practice. Viterbi decoding was developed by Andrew J. Viterbi
Andrew J

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Shannon's Theorem
In information theory, the noisy-channel coding theorem (sometimes Shannon's theorem), establishes that for any given degree of noise contamination of a communication channel, it is possible to communicate discrete data (digital information) nearly error-free up to a computable maximum rate through the channel
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Rake Receiver
A rake receiver is a radio receiver designed to counter the effects of multipath fading. It does this by using several "sub-receivers" called fingers, that is, several correlators each assigned to a different multipath component. Each finger independently decodes a single multipath component; at a later stage the contribution of all fingers are combined in order to make the most use of the different transmission characteristics of each transmission path. This could very well result in higher signal-to-noise ratio (or Eb/N0) in a multipath environment than in a "clean" environment. The multipath channel through which a radio wave transmits can be viewed as transmitting the original (line of sight) wave pulse through a number of multipath components. Multipath components are delayed copies of the original transmitted wave traveling through a different echo path, each with a different magnitude and time-of-arrival at the receiver
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Soft Handoff
Soft handover or soft handoff refers to a feature used by the CDMA and W-CDMA standards, where a cell phone is simultaneously connected to two or more cells (or cell sectors) during a call. If the sectors are from the same physical cell site (a sectorised site), it is referred to as softer handoff. This technique is a form of mobile-assisted handover, for IS-95/ CDMA2000
CDMA2000
CDMA cell phones continuously make power measurements of a list of neighboring cell sites, and determine whether or not to request or end soft handover with the cell sectors on the list. Due to the properties of the CDMA signaling scheme, it is possible for a CDMA phone to simultaneously receive signals from two or more radio base stations that are transmitting the same bit stream (using different transmission codes) on the different physical channels in the same frequency bandwidth
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PN Code
In cryptography, pseudorandom noise (PRN [1]) is a signal similar to noise which satisfies one or more of the standard tests for statistical randomness. Although it seems to lack any definite pattern, pseudorandom noise consists of a deterministic sequence of pulses that will repeat itself after its period.[2] In cryptographic devices, the pseudorandom noise pattern is determined by a key and the repetition period can be very long, even millions of digits. Pseudorandom noise is used in some electronic musical instruments, either by itself or as an input to subtractive synthesis, and in many white noise machines. In spread-spectrum systems, the receiver correlates a locally generated signal with the received signal
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Comparison Of Mobile Phone Standards
This is a comparison of standards of mobile phones.Contents1 Issues 2 Comparison table 3 Strengths and Weaknesses of IS-95
IS-95
and GSM[4]3.1 Advantages of GSM 3.2 Disadvantages of GSM 3.3 Advantages of IS-95 3.4 Disadvantages of IS-954 Development of the Market Share of Mobile Standards 5 Comparison of wireless Internet
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List Of Mobile Phone Generations
This is a list of mobile phone generations:Contents1 1G 2 2G 3 3G 4 3.5G 5 4G 6 4.5G 7 5G 8 See also 9 References1G[edit] 1G or (1-G) refers to the first generation of wireless telephone technology (mobile telecommunications). These are the analog telecommunications standards that were introduced in 1980s and continued until being replaced by 2G digital telecommunications. The main difference between the two mobile telephone systems (1G and 2G), is that the radio signals used by 1G network are analog, while 2G networks are digital. 2G[edit] 2G (or 2-G) provides three primary benefits over their predecessors: phone conversations are digitally encrypted; 2G systems are significantly more efficient on the spectrum allowing for far greater mobile phone penetration levels; and 2G introduced data services for mobile, starting with SMS
SMS
(Short Message Service) plain text-based messages
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Radiotelephone
A radiotelephone (or radiophone) is a communications system for transmission of speech over radio. Radiotelephone systems are very rarely interconnected with the public "land line" (POTS/PSTN) telephone network, and in some radio services, including GMRS,[1] such interconnection is prohibited. "Radiotelephony" means transmission of sound (audio) by radio, in contrast to radiotelegraphy (transmission of telegraph signals) or video transmission
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Mobile Phone
A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area. The radio frequency link establishes a connection to the switching systems of a mobile phone operator, which provides access to the public switched telephone network (PSTN). Modern mobile telephone services use a cellular network architecture, and, therefore, mobile telephones are called cellular telephones or cell phones, in North America. In addition to telephony, 2000s-era mobile phones support a variety of other services, such as text messaging, MMS, email, Internet
Internet
access, short-range wireless communications (infrared, Bluetooth), business applications, video games, and digital photography
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Mobile Telephone Service
The Mobile Telephone
Telephone
Service (MTS) was a pre-cellular VHF radio system that linked to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). MTS was the radiotelephone equivalent of land dial phone service. The Mobile Telephone
Telephone
Service was one of the earliest mobile telephone standards. It was operator assisted in both directions, meaning that if one were called from a land line the call would be routed to a mobile operator, who would route it to one's phone. Similarly, to make an outbound call one had to go through the mobile operator, who would ask for the mobile number and the number to be called, and would then place the call. This service originated with the Bell System, and was first used in St. Louis on June 17, 1946
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MTD (mobile Network)
MTD (Swedish abbreviation for Mobiltelefonisystem D, or Mobile telephony system D) was a manual mobile phone system for the 450 MHz frequency band. It was introduced in 1971 in Sweden, and lasted until 1987, when it was made obsolete by the NMT automatic service. The MTD network had 20,000 users at its peak, with 700 people employed as phone operators. MTD was also implemented in Denmark
Denmark
and in Norway
Norway
(from 1976), which allowed roaming within the Scandinavian countries. MTA[edit] In Sweden, the first mobile phone system was MTA (for Mobiltelefonisystem A), which was introduced in 1956, and lasted until 1967. It was a 160 MHz system available in Stockholm
Stockholm
and Gothenburg, with 125 total subscribers. The second system, MTB (for Mobiltelefonisystem B), had transistorized mobile sets, was introduced in 1962, and lasted until 1983
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