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Cavaliers
CAVALIER (/ˌkævəˈlɪər/ ) was first used by Roundheads as a term of abuse for the wealthier Royalist supporters of King Charles I and his son Charles II of England
Charles II of England
during the English Civil War
English Civil War
, the Interregnum , and the Restoration (1642 – c. 1679). It was later adopted by the Royalists themselves. Although it referred originally to political and social attitudes and behaviour, of which clothing was a very small part, it has subsequently become strongly identified with the fashionable clothing of the court at the time. Prince Rupert , commander of much of Charles I's cavalry, is often considered to be an archetypal Cavalier
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New Model Army
The NEW MODEL ARMY of England was formed in 1645 by the Parliamentarians in the English Civil War
English Civil War
, and was disbanded in 1660 after the Restoration . It differed from other armies in the series of civil wars referred to as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms
Wars of the Three Kingdoms
in that it was intended as an army liable for service anywhere in the country (including in Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland
Ireland
), rather than being tied to a single area or garrison . Its soldiers became full-time professionals , rather than part-time militia . To establish a professional officer corps, the army's leaders were prohibited from having seats in either the House of Lords
House of Lords
or House of Commons . This was to encourage their separation from the political or religious factions among the Parliamentarians
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Second English Civil War
The SECOND ENGLISH CIVIL WAR (1648–1649) was the second of three wars known collectively as the English Civil War
English Civil War
(or Wars), which refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651 and also include the First English Civil War
English Civil War
(1642–1646) and the Third English Civil War
English Civil War
(1649–1651)
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Exclusion Crisis
The EXCLUSION CRISIS ran from 1679 through 1681 in the reign of King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland . Three Exclusion bills sought to exclude the King's brother and heir presumptive , James, Duke of York , from the thrones of England , Scotland and Ireland because he was Roman Catholic. None became law. Two new parties formed. The Tories were opposed to this exclusion while the "Country Party", who were soon to be called the Whigs , supported it. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Crises * 3 Parties emerge * 4 Notes * 5 See also * 6 Further reading BACKGROUND Portrait of the Duke of York as Lord High Admiral of England
Lord High Admiral of England
. In 1673, the Duke of York, who had converted to Catholicism, resigned as Lord High Admiral rather than take the anti-Catholic oath prescribed by the Test Act
Test Act

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Haarlem
HAARLEM (Dutch pronunciation: ( listen ); predecessor of Harlem
Harlem
in the English language
English language
) is a city and municipality in the Netherlands
Netherlands
. It is the capital of the province of North Holland and is situated at the northern edge of the Randstad , one of the most populated metropolitan areas in Europe. Haarlem
Haarlem
had a population of 155,758 in 2017. It is a 15-minute train ride from Amsterdam
Amsterdam
, and many residents commute to the country's capital for work. Haarlem
Haarlem
was granted city status or stadsrechten in 1245, although the first city walls were not built until 1270. The modern city encompasses the former municipality of Schoten as well as parts that previously belonged to Bloemendaal and Heemstede
Heemstede

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Calvinism
CALVINISM (also called the REFORMED TRADITION, REFORMED CHRISTIANITY, REFORMED PROTESTANTISM, or the REFORMED FAITH) is a major branch of Protestantism
Protestantism
that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin
John Calvin
and other Reformation-era theologians . Calvinists broke from the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in the 16th century. Calvinism
Calvinism
differs from Lutherans on the real presence of Christ
Christ
in the Eucharist , theories of worship , and the use of God\'s law for believers , among other things. As declared in the Westminster and Second Helvetic confessions, a basic principle is that the Bible
Bible
is to be interpreted by itself, meaning the parts that are harder to understand are examined in the light of other passages where the Bible is more explicit on the matter
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Oliver Cromwell
ENGLISH CIVIL WAR : * Gainsborough * Marston Moor * Newbury II * Naseby * Langport * Preston * Dunbar
Dunbar
* Worcester
Worcester
Royal styles of Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth REFERENCE STYLE His Highness SPOKEN STYLE Your Highness ALTERNATIVE STYLE SirOLIVER CROMWELL (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader and later Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland . Cromwell was born into the middle gentry , albeit to a family descended from the sister of King Henry VIII
Henry VIII
's minister Thomas Cromwell . Little is known of the first 40 years of his life as only four of his personal letters survive alongside a summary of a speech he delivered in 1628
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Frans Hals
FRANS HALS THE ELDER (/hɑːls/ ; Dutch: ; c. 1582 – 26 August 1666) was a Dutch Golden Age
Dutch Golden Age
portrait painter who lived and worked in Haarlem
Haarlem
. He is notable for his loose painterly brushwork, and he helped introduce this lively style of painting into Dutch art. Hals played an important role in the evolution of 17th-century group portraiture . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Artistic career * 3 Wedding portraits * 4 Portrait painter * 5 Painting technique * 6 Influence * 7 Legacy * 8 Public collections (selection) * 9 See also * 10 References and sources * 11 External links BIOGRAPHYHals was born in 1582 or 1583 in Antwerp
Antwerp
as the son of cloth merchant Franchois Fransz Hals van Mechelen (c.1542–1610) and his second wife Adriaentje van Geertenryck
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Laughing Cavalier
The LAUGHING CAVALIER (1624) is a portrait by the Dutch Golden Age painter Frans Hals
Frans Hals
in the Wallace Collection
Wallace Collection
in London, which has been described as "one of the most brilliant of all Baroque portraits". The title is an invention of the Victorian public and press, dating from its exhibition in the opening display at the Bethnal Green
Bethnal Green
Museum in 1872–75, just after its arrival in England, after which it was regularly reproduced as a print, and became among of the best known old master paintings in Britain. The unknown subject is in fact not laughing, but can be said to have an enigmatic smile, much amplified by his upturned moustache
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Whigs (British Political Party)
The WHIGS were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England , Scotland , Great Britain , Ireland and the United Kingdom . Between the 1680s and 1850s, they contested power with their rivals, the Tories . The Whigs' origin lay in constitutional monarchism and opposition to absolute monarchy . The Whigs played a central role in the Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
of 1688, and were the standing enemies of the Stuart kings and pretenders , who were Roman Catholic. The Whigs took full control of the government in 1715, and remained totally dominant until King George III , coming to the throne in 1760, allowed Tories back in. The "Whig Supremacy" (1715–1760) was enabled by the Hanoverian succession of George I in 1714 and the failed Jacobite rising of 1715
Jacobite rising of 1715
by Tory rebels
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Charles I In Three Positions
CHARLES I IN THREE POSITIONS, also known as the TRIPLE PORTRAIT OF CHARLES I, is an oil painting of Charles I of England
Charles I of England
by Flemish artist Sir Anthony van Dyck
Anthony van Dyck
, showing the king from three viewpoints: left full profile, face on, and right three-quarter profile. Painted in 1635 or 1636, it is currently part of the Royal Collection
Royal Collection
. The colours of the costumes and pattern of the lace collars are different in each portrait, though the blue riband of the Order of the Garter
Order of the Garter
is present in all three. The painting was sent to Rome in 1636 to be used as a reference work for the Italian sculptor Gian Lorenzo Bernini
Gian Lorenzo Bernini
to create a marble bust of Charles I
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
The ENCYCLOPæDIA BRITANNICA ELEVENTH EDITION (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication. Some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia is now in the public domain , but the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic. Some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Tens of thousands of its articles were copied directly into , where they still can be found
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David Hume
DAVID HUME (/ˈhjuːm/ ; born DAVID HOME; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS ) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher , historian , economist , and essayist , who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism , skepticism , and naturalism . Hume's empiricist approach to philosophy places him with John Locke
John Locke
, Francis Bacon
Francis Bacon
, and Thomas Hobbes
Thomas Hobbes
as a British Empiricist . Beginning with his A Treatise of Human Nature (1739), Hume strove to create a total naturalistic science of man that examined the psychological basis of human nature
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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The Proscribed Royalist, 1651
THE PROSCRIBED ROYALIST, 1651 (1853) is a painting by John Everett Millais which depicts a young Puritan
Puritan
woman protecting a fleeing Royalist
Royalist
after the Battle of Worcester
Battle of Worcester
in 1651, the decisive defeat of Charles II by Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
. The Royalist
Royalist
is hiding in a hollow tree, a reference to a famous incident in which Charles himself hid in a tree to escape from his pursuers. Millais was also influenced by Vincenzo Bellini
Vincenzo Bellini
's opera I Puritani
I Puritani
. Millais painted the picture in Hayes, Kent
Hayes, Kent
, from a local oak tree that became known as the Millais Oak. NOTES * ^ Millais, J.G., Life and Letters of Sir John Everett Millais, vol
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