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Cavaliers
The term Cavalier
Cavalier
(/ˌkævəˈlɪər/) was first used by Roundheads as a term of abuse for the wealthier Royalist supporters of King Charles I and his son Charles II of England
Charles II of England
during the English Civil War, the Interregnum, and the Restoration (1642 – c. 1679). It was later adopted by the Royalists themselves. Although it referred originally to political and social attitudes and behaviour, of which clothing was a very small part, it has subsequently become strongly identified with the fashionable clothing of the court at the time
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Haarlem
Haarlem
Haarlem
(Dutch pronunciation: [ˈɦaːrlɛm] ( listen); predecessor of Harlem
Harlem
in the English language) is a city and municipality in the Netherlands. It is the capital of the province of North Holland
North Holland
and is situated at the northern edge of the Randstad, one of the most populated metropolitan areas in Europe. Haarlem
Haarlem
had a population of 159,556 in 2017. It is a 15-minute train ride from Amsterdam, and many residents commute to the country's capital for work. Haarlem
Haarlem
was granted city status or stadsrechten in 1245, although the first city walls were not built until 1270. The modern city encompasses the former municipality of Schoten as well as parts that previously belonged to Bloemendaal
Bloemendaal
and Heemstede
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Whigs (British Political Party)
The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom. Between the 1680s and 1850s, they contested power with their rivals, the Tories. The Whigs' origin lay in constitutional monarchism and opposition to absolute monarchy. The Whigs played a central role in the Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
of 1688 and were the standing enemies of the Stuart kings and pretenders, who were Roman Catholic. The Whigs took full control of the government in 1715 and remained totally dominant until King George III, coming to the throne in 1760, allowed Tories
Tories
back in. The "Whig Supremacy" (1715–1760) was enabled by the Hanoverian succession of George I in 1714 and the failed Jacobite rising of 1715
Jacobite rising of 1715
by Tory rebels
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John Cruso
John Cruso (1592 – after 1655) was a writer on military matters before the English Civil War, and a supporter of the Parliamentary cause during the war.[1] Many of his works were as editor and a translator of continental works. Ole Peter Grell says "Cruso's military works were significant only in that they were the first to make the new continental, primarily Dutch, military literature available to an English-speaking audience."[1] Cruso also wrote poetry in English and Dutch. His Dutch poems include a lengthy reflection on Psalm 8, and an elegy to the minister of the Dutch church in Norwich, Johannes Elison (1642). In 1655 he published a collection of 221 Dutch epigrams. We also know of at least three English poems by Cruso, dedicated to the preacher at St. Andrew's church, Norwich, Lawrence Howlett
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BBC
The British Broadcasting
Broadcasting
Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House
Broadcasting House
in Westminster, London
London
and it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation[3] and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees
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Independent (religion)
In English church history, Independents advocated local congregational control of religious and church matters, without any wider geographical hierarchy, either ecclesiastical or political. Independents reached particular prominence between 1642 and 1660, in the period of the English Civil War
English Civil War
and of the Commonwealth and Protectorate, wherein the Parliamentary Army became the champion of Independent religious views against the Anglicanism
Anglicanism
or the Catholicism of Royalists and the Presbyterianism
Presbyterianism
favoured by Parliament itself. The Independents advocated freedom of religion for non-Catholics.Contents1 History 2 See also 3 Notes 4 References 5 Further readingHistory[edit] During the First Civil War, the Parliamentary cause was supported by an alliance of Anglicans who supported Parliamentary traditions, Presbyterians and Independents
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New Model Army
The New Model Army
Army
of England was formed in 1645 by the Parliamentarians in the English Civil War, and was disbanded in 1660 after the Restoration. It differed from other armies in the series of civil wars referred to as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms
Wars of the Three Kingdoms
in that it was intended as an army liable for service anywhere in the country (including in Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland), rather than being tied to a single area or garrison. Its soldiers became full-time professionals, rather than part-time militia. To establish a professional officer corps, the army's leaders were prohibited from having seats in either the House of Lords
House of Lords
or House of Commons
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Second English Civil War
The Second English Civil War
English Civil War
(1648–1649) was the second of three wars known collectively as the English Civil War
English Civil War
(or Wars), which refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651 and also include the First
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Exclusion Crisis
The Exclusion Crisis
Exclusion Crisis
ran from 1679 through 1681 in the reign of King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland. Three Exclusion bills sought to exclude the King's brother and heir presumptive, James, Duke of York, from the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland because he was Roman Catholic. None became law. Two new parties formed. The Tories were opposed to this exclusion while the "Country Party", who were soon to be called the Whigs, supported it.Contents1 Background 2 Crises 3 The End of the Crisis 4 In fiction 5 Notes 6 See also 7 Further readingBackground[edit]Portrait of the Duke of York as Lord High Admiral of England. In 1673, the Duke of York, who had converted to Catholicism, resigned as Lord High Admiral rather than take the anti-Catholic oath prescribed by the Test Act.Engraving showing "A Solemn Mock Procession of the Pope" held in London on 17 November 1680
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Charles I In Three Positions
Charles I in Three Positions, also known as the Triple portrait of Charles I, is an oil painting of Charles I of England
Charles I of England
by Flemish artist Sir Anthony van Dyck, showing the king from three viewpoints: left full profile, face on, and right three-quarter profile. Painted in 1635 or 1636, it is currently part of the Royal Collection.[1] The colours of the costumes and pattern of the lace collars are different in each portrait, though the blue riband of the Order of the Garter
Order of the Garter
is present in all three.[1] The painting was sent to Rome in 1636 to be used as a reference work for the Italian sculptor Gian Lorenzo Bernini
Gian Lorenzo Bernini
to create a marble bust of Charles I
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Anthony Van Dyck
Sir Anthony van Dyck
Anthony van Dyck
(Dutch pronunciation: [vɑn ˈdɛi̯k], many variant spellings;[1] 22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish Baroque
Baroque
artist who became the leading court painter in England, after enjoying great success in Italy
Italy
and the Southern Netherlands. He is most famous for his portraits of Charles I of England
England
and his family and court, painted with a relaxed elegance that was to be the dominant influence on English portrait-painting for the next 150 years. He also painted biblical and mythological subjects, displayed outstanding facility as a draughtsman, and was an important innovator in watercolour and etching
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John Everett Millais
Sir John Everett Millais, 1st Baronet, PRA (/ˈmɪleɪ/; 8 June 1829 – 13 August 1896) was an English painter and illustrator who was one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.[1] A child prodigy, at the age of eleven Millais became the youngest student to enter the Royal Academy
Royal Academy
Schools. The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was founded at his family home in London, at 83 Gower Street (now number 7). Millais became the most famous exponent of the style, his painting Christ in the House of His Parents
Christ in the House of His Parents
(1850) generating considerable controversy, and painting perhaps the embodiment of the school, Ophelia, in 1851. However, by the mid-1850s Millais was moving away from the Pre-Raphaelite style and developing a new and powerful form of realism in his art
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The Proscribed Royalist, 1651
The Proscribed Royalist, 1651
The Proscribed Royalist, 1651
(1853) is a painting by John Everett Millais which depicts a young Puritan
Puritan
woman protecting a fleeing Royalist
Royalist
after the Battle of Worcester
Battle of Worcester
in 1651,[citation needed] the decisive defeat of Charles II by Oliver Cromwell. The Royalist
Royalist
is hiding in a hollow tree, a reference to a famous incident in which Charles himself hid in a tree to escape from his pursuers.[citation needed] Millais was also influenced by Vincenzo Bellini's opera I Puritani. Millais painted the picture in Hayes, Kent, from a local oak tree that became known as the Millais Oak.[2] Notes[edit]^ "The Proscribed Royalist, 1651". Birmingham Museums. Retrieved 23 September 2017.  ^ Millais, J.G., Life and Letters of Sir John Everett Millais, vol
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Eleventh Edition (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication. Some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain; and many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in.[1] However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic
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