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Cathode
A cathode is the electrode from which a conventional current leaves a polarized electrical device. (This definition can be recalled by using the mnemonic CCD for cathode current departs.) A conventional current describes the direction in which positive electronic charges move. Electrons have a negative electrical charge, so the movement of electrons is opposite to that of the conventional current flow (consequently, the mnemonic cathode current departs also means that electrons flow into the device's cathode). Cathode
Cathode
polarity with respect to the anode can be positive or negative depending on how the device is being operated
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Electrical Filament
An incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is an electric light with a wire filament heated to such a high temperature that it glows with visible light (incandescence). The filament is protected from oxidation with a glass or fused quartz bulb that is filled with inert gas or a vacuum. In a halogen lamp, filament evaporation is slowed by a chemical process that redeposits metal vapor onto the filament, thereby extending its life. The light bulb is supplied with electric current by feed-through terminals or wires embedded in the glass. Most bulbs are used in a socket which provides mechanical support and electrical connections. Incandescent
Incandescent
bulbs are manufactured in a wide range of sizes, light output, and voltage ratings, from 1.5 volts to about 300 volts. They require no external regulating equipment, have low manufacturing costs, and work equally well on either alternating current or direct current
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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Circuit Diagram
A circuit diagram (electrical diagram, elementary diagram, electronic schematic) is a graphical representation of an electrical circuit. A pictorial circuit diagram uses simple images of components, while a schematic diagram shows the components and interconnections of the circuit using standardized symbolic representations. The presentation of the interconnections between circuit components in the schematic diagram does not necessarily correspond to the physical arrangements in the finished device.[1] Unlike a block diagram or layout diagram, a circuit diagram shows the actual electrical connections
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Image Intensifier
An image intensifier or image intensifier tube is a vacuum tube device for increasing the intensity of available light in an optical system to allow use under low-light conditions, such as at night, to facilitate visual imaging of low-light processes, such as fluorescence of materials in X-rays or gamma rays ( X-ray
X-ray
image intensifier), or for conversion of non-visible light sources, such as near-infrared or short wave infrared to visible. They operate by converting photons of light into electrons, amplifying the electrons (usually with a microchannel plate), and then converting the amplified electrons back into photons for viewing
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Frequency
Frequency
Frequency
is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.[1] It is also referred to as temporal frequency, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency and angular frequency. The period is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency.[2] For example, if a newborn baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second (that is, 60 seconds divided by 120 beats)
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Electric Field
An electric field is a field that surrounds electric charges. It represents charges attracting or repelling other electric charges by exerting force.[1] [2] Mathematically the electric field is a vector field that associates to each point in space the force, called the Coulomb
Coulomb
force, that would be experienced per unit of charge, by an infinitesimal test charge at that point.[3] The units of the electric field in the SI system are newtons per coulomb (N/C), or volts per meter (V/m). Electric fields are created by electric charges, and by time-varying magnetic fields. Electric fields are important in many areas of physics, and are exploited practically in electrical technology. On an atomic scale, the electric field is responsible for the attractive force between the atomic nucleus and electrons that holds atoms together, and the forces between atoms that cause chemical bonding
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Physics
Physics
Physics
(from Ancient Greek: φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), translit. physikḗ (epistḗmē), lit. 'knowledge of nature', from φύσις phýsis "nature"[1][2][3]) is the natural science that studies matter[4] and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force.[5] Physics
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Polarity (physics)
In physics, polarity is an attribute with two possible values. Polarity is a basic feature of the universe.An electric charge can have either positive or negative polarity. A voltage or potential difference between two points of an electric circuit has a polarity, describing which of the two points has the higher electric potential. A magnet has a polarity, in that it has two poles described as "north" and "south" pole. More generally, the polarity of an electric or magnetic field can be viewed as the sign of the vectors describing the field. The spin of an entity in quantum mechanics can have a polarity – parallel or anti-parallel to a given direction.See also[edit]Polarization (other) Chemical polarityThis physics-related article is a stub
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Chemistry
Chemistry
Chemistry
is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.[1][2] Chemistry
Chemistry
addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. There are four types of chemical bonds: covalent bonds, in which compounds share one or more electron(s); ionic bonds, in which a compound donates one or more electrons to another compound to produce ions: cations and anions; hydrogen bonds; and Van der Waals force
Van der Waals force
bonds
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Geomagnetic Reversal
A geomagnetic reversal is a change in a planet's magnetic field such that the positions of magnetic north and magnetic south are interchanged, while geographic north and geographic south remain the same. The Earth's field has alternated between periods of normal polarity, in which the predominant direction of the field was the same as the present direction, and reverse polarity, in which it was the opposite. These periods are called chrons. The time spans of chrons are randomly distributed with most being between 0.1 and 1 million years[citation needed] with an average of 450,000 years. Most reversals are estimated to take between 1,000 and 10,000 years. The latest one, the Brunhes–Matuyama reversal, occurred 780,000 years ago, and may have happened very quickly, within a human lifetime.[1] A brief complete reversal, known as the Laschamp event, occurred only 41,000 years ago during the last glacial period
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Dipole
In electromagnetism, there are two kinds of dipoles:An electric dipole is a separation of positive and negative charges. The simplest example of this is a pair of electric charges of equal magnitude but opposite sign, separated by some (usually small) distance. A permanent electric dipole is called an electret. A magnetic dipole is a closed circulation of electric current. A simple example of this is a single loop of wire with some constant current through it.[1][2]Dipoles can be characterized by their dipole moment, a vector quantity. For the simple electric dipole given above, the electric dipole moment points from the negative charge towards the positive charge, and has a magnitude equal to the strength of each charge times the separation between the charges
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Solenoid
A solenoid (/ˈsoʊ.lə.nɔɪd/)[1] (from the French solénoïde, derived in turn from the Greek solen ("pipe, channel") and eidos ("form, shape")[2]) is a coil wound into a tightly packed helix. The term was invented by French physicist André-Marie Ampère
André-Marie Ampère
to designate a helical coil.[3] In physics, the term refers to a coil whose length is substantially greater than its diameter, often wrapped around a metallic core, which produces a uniform magnetic field in a volume of space (where some experiment might be carried out) when an electric current is passed through it. A solenoid is a type of electromagnet when the purpose is to generate a controlled magnetic field. If the purpose of the solenoid is instead to impede changes in the electric current, a solenoid can be more specifically classified as an inductor rather than an electromagnet
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Electrochemical Cell
An electrochemical cell is a device capable of either generating electrical energy from chemical reactions or facilitating chemical reactions through the introduction of electrical energy. A common example of an electrochemical cell is a standard 1.5 - volt[1] cell meant for consumer use. This type of device is known as a single galvanic cell. A battery consists of one or more cells, connected in either parallel or series pattern.[2]Contents1 Half-cells1.1 Equilibrium reaction 1.2 Cell potential2 See also 3 ReferencesHalf-cells[edit]The Bunsen cell, invented by Robert Bunsen.An electrochemical cell consists of two half-cells. Each half-cell consists of an electrode and an electrolyte. The two half-cells may use the same electrolyte, or they may use different electrolytes. The chemical reactions in the cell may involve the electrolyte, the electrodes, or an external substance (as in fuel cells that may use hydrogen gas as a reactant)
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Solar Cell
A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.[1] It is a form of photoelectric cell, defined as a device whose electrical characteristics, such as current, voltage, or resistance, vary when exposed to light. Individual solar cell devices can be combined to form modules, otherwise known as solar panels. In basic terms a single junction silicon solar cell can produce a maximum open-circuit voltage of approximately 0.5 to 0.6 volts.[2] Solar cells are described as being photovoltaic, irrespective of whether the source is sunlight or an artificial light
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Mnemonic
A mnemonic (/nəˈmɒnɪk/,[1] the first "m" is silent) device, or memory device, is any learning technique that aids information retention or retrieval (remembering) in the human memory. Mnemonics make use of elaborative encoding, retrieval cues, and imagery as specific tools to encode any given information in a way that allows for efficient storage and retrieval. Mnemonics aid original information in becoming associated with something more accessible or meaningful—which, in turn, provides better retention of the information. Commonly encountered mnemonics are often used for lists and in auditory form, such as short poems, acronyms, or memorable phrases, but mnemonics can also be used for other types of information and in visual or kinesthetic forms
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