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Casimir IV Jagiellon
Casimir IV KG (Polish: Kazimierz IV Andrzej Jagiellończyk [kaˈʑimi̯ɛʒ jaɡi̯ɛlˈlɔɲt͡ʃɨk] ( listen); Lithuanian: Kazimieras Jogailaitis [kaˈziˈmieˈrʲaːs joːˈgaːiˈlʲaiˈtisʲ] ( listen); 30 November 1427 – 7 June 1492[1]) of the Jagiellonian dynasty
Jagiellonian dynasty
was Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1440 and King of Poland
King of Poland
from 1447, until his death. He was one of the most active Polish rulers, under whom Poland, by defeating the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
in the Thirteen Years' War recovered Pomerania, and the Jagiellonian dynasty
Jagiellonian dynasty
became one of the leading royal houses in Europe
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Marcello Bacciarelli
Marcello Bacciarelli
Bacciarelli
(Italian pronunciation: [marˈtʃɛllo battʃaˈrɛlli]; 16 February 1731 – 5 January 1818) was a Polish-Italian painter of the late-baroque and Neoclassic periods. Biography[edit] He was born in Rome, and studied there under Marco Benefial. In 1750, with the recommendation of the architect Gaetano Chiaveri, Marcello was recruited to Dresden
Dresden
in Saxony, where he was employed by Elected King Augustus III
Augustus III
of Poland.[1] After the death of King Augustus, Marcello went to Vienna, and thence to Warsaw. In Dresden, he met Bernardo Bellotto
Bernardo Bellotto
and worked with this Italian painter throughout his life
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Crafts
A craft or trade is a pastime or a profession that requires particular skills and knowledge of skilled work. In a historical sense, particularly the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and earlier, the term is usually applied to people occupied in small-scale production of goods, or their maintenance, for example by tinkers. The traditional terms craftsman and craftswoman are nowadays often replaced by artisan and rarely by craftsperson (craftspeople). Historically, the more specialized crafts with high value products tended to concentrate in urban centers and formed guilds. The skill required by their professions and the need to be permanently involved in the exchange of goods often demanded a generally higher level of education, and craftsmen were usually in a more privileged position than the peasantry in societal hierarchy
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Roman Catholic
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide.[4] As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation.[5] Headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed
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Order Of The Garter
The Order of the Garter
Order of the Garter
(formally the Most Noble Order of the Garter) is an order of chivalry founded by Edward III
Edward III
in 1348 and regarded as the most prestigious British order of chivalry (though in precedence inferior to the military Victoria Cross
Victoria Cross
and George Cross) in England and the United Kingdom. It is dedicated to the image and arms of Saint George, England's patron saint. Appointments are made at the Sovereign's sole discretion. Membership of the Order is limited to the Sovereign, the Prince of Wales, and no more than 24 living members, or Companions. The order also includes supernumerary knights and ladies (e.g., members of the British Royal Family and foreign monarchs)
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Polish Language
Polish (język polski, polszczyzna) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland
Poland
and is the native language of the Poles. It belongs to the Lechitic subgroup of the West Slavic languages.[8] Polish is the official language of Poland, but it is also used throughout the world by Polish minorities in other countries. There are over 55 million Polish language
Polish language
speakers around the world and it is one of the official languages of the European Union. Its written standard is the Polish alphabet, which has 9 additions to the letters of the basic Latin script
Latin script
(ą, ć, ę, ł, ń, ó, ś, ź, ż)
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Lithuanian Language
Lithuanian (Lithuanian: lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language
Baltic language
spoken in the Baltic region. It is the language of Lithuanians
Lithuanians
and the official language of Lithuania
Lithuania
as well as one of the official languages of the European Union. There are about 2.9 million[3] native Lithuanian speakers in Lithuania
Lithuania
and about 200,000 abroad. As a Baltic language, Lithuanian is closely related to neighboring Latvian and more distantly to Slavic and other Indo-European languages. It is written in a Latin
Latin
alphabet
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Teutonic Knights
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem[2] (official names: Latin: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, German: Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order
Catholic religious order
founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem. The Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
was formed to aid Christians
Christians
on their pilgrimages to the Holy Land
Holy Land
and to establish hospitals
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Pomerania
Pomerania
Pomerania
(Polish: Pomorze; German, Low German
Low German
and Swedish: Pommern; Kashubian: Pòmòrskô) is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
in Central Europe, split between Germany
Germany
and Poland. The name derives from the Slavic po more, meaning "by the sea".[1] Pomerania
Pomerania
stretches roughly from the Recknitz
Recknitz
and Trebel rivers in the west to the Vistula
Vistula
river in the east.[2][3] The largest Pomeranian islands are Rügen, Usedom/Uznam and Wolin. The largest Pomeranian city is Gdańsk, or, when using a narrower definition of the region, Szczecin. Outside its urban areas, Pomerania is characterized by farmland, dotted with numerous lakes, forests, and towns
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Western Europe
Western Europe
Europe
is the region comprising the western part of Europe. Below, some different geographic, geopolitical and cultural definitions of the term are outlined. Significant historical events that have shaped the concept of Western Europe
Europe
include the rise of Rome, the adoption of Greek culture during the Roman Republic, the adoption of
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Mining
Mining
Mining
is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit. These deposits form a mineralized package that is of economic interest to the miner. Ores recovered by mining include metals, coal, oil shale, gemstones, limestone, chalk, dimension stone, rock salt, potash, gravel, and clay. Mining
Mining
is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or created artificially in a laboratory or factory. Mining
Mining
in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum, natural gas, or even water. Mining
Mining
of stones and metal has been a human activity since pre-historic times
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Dynasty
A dynasty (UK: /ˈdɪnəsti/, US: /ˈdaɪnəsti/) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,[1] usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house",[2] which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase")
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Grand Duchy Of Lithuania
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
was a European state from the 13th century[1] until 1795,[2] when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria. The state was founded by the Lithuanians, one of the polytheistic Baltic tribes
Baltic tribes
from Aukštaitija.[3][4][5] The Grand Duchy later expanded to include large portions of the former Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
and other Slavic lands, including territory of present-day Belarus, parts of Ukraine, Poland
Poland
and Russia
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Voivode Of Trakai
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
(1569–1795)← 1413–1795 →   →   →   →Coat of arms Trakai
Trakai
Voivodeship (in red) in the 17th centuryCapital TrakaiGovernment MonarchyLegislature SejmikHistory •  Established by Union of Horodło 1413 •  Union of Lublin 1569 •  Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1795Area •  1570 31,100 km2 (12,008 sq mi) •  1790 23,885 km2 (9,222 sq mi)Population •  1790 288,000 Density 12.1 /km2  (31.2 /sq mi)Political subdivisions Counties: 4Today part of Lithuania, Poland, BelarusPopulation and area are given according to Vaitiekūnas, Stasys (2006). Lietuvos gyventojai: Per du tūkstantmečius (in Lithuanian). Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedijų leidybos institutas
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Vicegerent
Vicegerent is the official administrative deputy of a ruler or head of state: vice (Latin: in place of) + gerere (Latin: to carry on, conduct).[1]Contents1 Usage1.1 Catholic Church 1.2 Southeast Asia2 Notable vicegerents 3 Notes 4 Further readingUsage[edit] Catholic Church[edit] In the Catholic Church, the Vicegerent is an auxiliary bishop of the Diocese of Rome, who is granted the personal title of archbishop and serves as the chief assistant to the Cardinal Vicar of Rome.[2][3] In England, King Henry VIII's chief minister, Thomas Cromwell, was named "Vicegerent in spirituals." Cromwell's real role in the Church of England was as Vicar-General to the king and an active figure for the courtly protestants. Southeast Asia[edit] Patih or Pepatih is a regent title equivalent to vicegerent which was traditionally used among Austronesian polities of insular Southeast Asia, in particular those of Java and the Malay world
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