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Casa De Contratación
The Casa de Contratación
Casa de Contratación
(Spanish pronunciation: [ˈkasa ðe kontɾataˈθjon], "House of Trade") or Casa de la Contratación de las Indias ("House of Trade of the Indies") was established by the Crown of Castile, in 1503 in the port of Seville
Seville
as a crown agency for the Spanish Empire. It functioned until 1790, when it was abolished in a government reorganization. Before the establishment of the Council of the Indies in 1524, the Casa de Contratación
Casa de Contratación
had broad powers over overseas matters, especially financial matters concerning trade and legal disputes arising from it
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Peninsular War
French Empire Bonapartist Spain Confederation of the Rhine Napoleonic Italy Duchy of WarsawCommanders and leaders Arthur Wellesley William Beresford Rowland Hill John Moore † Francisco Castaños Juan Martín Díez José Palafox Gregorio de la Cuesta Miguel Álava Esquivel Joaquín Blake Bernardino Freire † Francisco da Silveira Napoleon
Napoleon
I Joseph I Joachim Murat Jean-Andoche Junot
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Manila
Manila
Manila
(/məˈnɪlə/; Filipino: Maynilà, pronounced [majˈnilaʔ] or [majniˈla]), officially the City of Manila
Manila
(Filipino: Lungsod ng Maynilà [luŋˈsod nɐŋ majˈnilaʔ], Spanish: Ciudad de Manila), is the capital of the Philippines
Philippines
and the most densely populated city proper in the world.[3] It was the first chartered City by virtue of the Philippine Commission Act 183 on July 31, 1901 and gained autonomy with the passage of Republic Act No
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Portuguese Restoration War
Restoration
Restoration
may refer to:Contents1 Conservation, ecology, and environment 2 Cultural heritage 3 General 4 History 5 Arts 6 Technology 7 Medicine 8 Religion 9 Title or name 10 Vehicles 11 Other uses 12 See alsoConservation, ecology, and environment[edit] Assisted natural regeneration
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French Wars Of Religion
Uneasy Catholic- Protestant
Protestant
truce House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
gains the French throne through Henry
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Spanish Golden Age
The Spanish Golden Age
Spanish Golden Age
(Spanish: Siglo de Oro [ˈsiɣlo ðe ˈoɾo], "Golden Century") is a period of flourishing in arts and literature in Spain, coinciding with the political rise of the Spanish Habsburg dynasty. El Siglo de Oro does not imply precise dates and is usually considered to have lasted longer than an actual century. It begins no earlier than 1492, with the end of the Reconquista
Reconquista
(Reconquest), the sea voyages of Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
to the New World, and the publication of Antonio de Nebrija's Gramática de la lengua castellana (Grammar of the Castilian Language). Politically, it ends no later than 1659, with the Treaty of the Pyrenees, ratified between France and Habsburg
Habsburg
Spain
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Special
Special
Special
or the specials or variation, may refer to:.mw-parser-output .tocright float:right;clear:right;width:auto;background:none;padding:.5em 0 .8em 1.4em;margin-bottom:.5em .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-left clear:left .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-both clear:both .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-none clear:none Contents1 Policing 2 Literature 3 Film and television 4 Music4.1 Albums 4.2 Songs5 Computing 6 Other uses 7 See alsoPolicing[edit] Specials, Ulster
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International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique.[a][b] Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each separate edition and variation (except reprintings) of a publication. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book will each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is ten digits long if assigned before 2007, and thirteen digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-specific and varies between countries, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book
Book
Numbering (SBN) created in 1966
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Diego Gutiérrez (cartographer)
Diego Gutiérrez was a Spanish cosmographer and cartographer of the Casa de la Contratación.[1] He was given this post by royal appointment on October 22, 1554, after the death of his father Dylanger in January 1554, and worked on the Padrón Real. New World map[edit] Main article: Americae Sive Quartae Orbis Partis Nova Et Exactissima Descriptio In 1562 Gutiérrez published a remarkable map entitled Americae Sive Quartae Orbis Partis Nova Et Exactissima Descriptio in Antwerp
Antwerp
(then part of the Spanish Netherlands) in collaboration with the printer Hieronymus Cock
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Sebastian Cabot (explorer)
Sebastian Cabot (Italian and Venetian: Sebastiano Caboto, Spanish: Sebastián Caboto, Gaboto or Cabot; c. 1474 – c. December 1557) was an Italian explorer, likely born in the Venetian Republic. He was the son of Italian explorer John Cabot
John Cabot
(Giovanni Caboto) and his Venetian wife Mattea. After his father's death, Cabot conducted his own voyages of discovery, seeking the Northwest Passage
Northwest Passage
through North America for England. He later sailed for Spain, traveling to South America, where he explored the Rio de la Plata
Rio de la Plata
and established two new forts.Contents1 Early life and education1.1 1494 Cabot scouting expedition2 Early career with England and Spain 3 Marriages and family 4 Service to Spain 5 Later years 6 Reputation 7 Honors 8 Sources 9 References 10 External linksEarly life and education[edit] Accounts differ as to Sebastian Cabot's place and date of birth
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Andrés De San Martín
Andrés de San Martín (b. Seville
Seville
- d. Cebu, 1521) was the chief pilot-cosmographer of the Armada del Maluco, the fleet commanded by Ferdinand Magellan
Ferdinand Magellan
in 1519. His nationality has been variously identified as Portuguese or French but archival records published in 1997 show San Martín was born in Seville.[1] Antonio Pigafetta
Antonio Pigafetta
wrote he was from Seville, and there's every reason to believe the Vicentine diarist who knew the astrologer although they were not in the same nao; Pigafetta was in the flagship Trinidad, while San Martín was assigned at first in San Antonio but later transferred to Victoria.Contents1 Family 2 Exceptional pilot of the Renaissance 3 Measurement of longitude 4 San Martín's papers 5 ReferencesFamily[edit] Andrés de San Martín was born in Seville, the son of Juan de Logroño and Juana Hernández
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Pilot Major
A Pilot Major is a chief navigator of a ship or fleet. This person is usually experienced in naval exploration and has distinguished himself as both a sailor and a voyager. This term is mostly used to describe persons from early modern history. An example of a pilot major is Amerigo Vespucci.This job-, occupation-, or vocation-related article is a stub. You can help by expanding it.v t eThis article about transport is a stub
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Charles IV Of Spain
Charles IV (Spanish: Carlos Antonio Pascual Francisco Javier Juan Nepomuceno José Januario Serafín Diego; 11 November 1748 – 20 January 1819) was King of Spain
King of Spain
from 14 December 1788, until his abdication on 19 March 1808.Contents1 Early life 2 Reign2.1 Abdications of Bayonne3 Later life and death 4 Character 5 Marriage and children 6 Ancestors 7 Titles and styles 8 Notes 9 References 10 External linksEarly life[edit] Charles was the second son of Charles III and his wife, Maria Amalia of Saxony. He was born in Naples
Naples
(11 November 1748), while his father was King of Naples
Naples
and Sicily. His elder brother, Don Felipe, was passed over for both thrones, due to his learning disabilities and epilepsy
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Crown Of Castile
The Crown of Castile[nb 1] was a medieval state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then Castilian king, Ferdinand III, to the vacant Leonese throne. It continued to exist as a separate entity after the personal union in 1469 of the crowns of Castile and Aragon with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs up to the promulgation of the Nueva Planta decrees
Nueva Planta decrees
by Philip V in 1715. The Indies, Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea were also a part of the Crown of Castile
Crown of Castile
when transformed from lordships to kingdoms of the heirs of Castile in 1506, with the Treaty of Villafáfila, and upon the death of Ferdinand the Catholic. The title of "King of Castile" remained in use by the Habsburg rulers during the 16th and 17th centuries
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Cádiz
Cádiz
Cádiz
(/kəˈdɪz/;[1] Spanish: [ˈkaðiθ]; see other pronunciations below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain. It is the capital of the Province of Cádiz, one of eight which make up the autonomous community of Andalusia. Cádiz, regarded by many as the oldest continuously inhabited city in Western Europe, with archaeological remains dating to 3100 years,[2][3][4][5] was founded by the Phoenicians.[6] It has been a principal home port of the Spanish Navy since the accession of the Spanish Bourbons in the 18th century. The city is a member of the Most Ancient European Towns Network.[5][7] It is also the site of the University of Cádiz. Situated on a narrow slice of land surrounded by the sea‚ Cádiz
Cádiz
is, in most respects, a typically Andalusian city with a wealth of attractive vistas and well-preserved historical landmarks
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Bourbon Reforms
The Bourbon Reforms
Bourbon Reforms
(Castilian: Reformas Borbónicas) were a set of economic and political legislation promulgated by the Spanish Crown under various kings of the House of Bourbon, mainly in the 18th century. The strengthening of the crown's power with clear lines of authority to officials contrasted to the complex system of government that evolved under the Habsburg monarchs.[1] In particular, the crown pursued state supremacy over the Catholic Church, resulting in the suppression of the Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
in 1767 as well as an attempt to abolish ecclesiastical privilege (fuero eclesiástico).[2] The reforms resulted in significant restructuring of the administrative structure and personnel.[3] The reforms were intended to stimulate manufacturing and technology to modernise Spain
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