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Carthaginians
The Punics
Punics
(from Latin
Latin
pūnicus, pl. pūnici), also known as Carthaginians, were a people from Ancient Carthage
Ancient Carthage
(now in Tunisia, North Africa) who traced their origins to the Phoenicians. Punic is the English adjective, derived from the Latin
Latin
adjective punicus to describe anything Carthaginian. Their language, Punic, was a dialect of Phoenician. Unlike their Phoenician ancestors, the Carthaginians had a landowning aristocracy, which established a rule of the hinterland in Northern Africa and trans-Saharan trade routes. In later times, one of the clans established a Hellenistic-inspired empire in Iberia and possibly had a foothold in western Gaul. Like other Phoenician people, their urbanized culture and economy were strongly linked to the sea
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Punic Language
The Punic language, also called Carthaginian[2] or Phoenicio-Punic, is an extinct variety of the Phoenician language, a Canaanite language of the Semitic family. It was spoken in the Carthaginian empire in North Africa and several Mediterranean islands by the Punic people throughout classical antiquity, from the 8th century BC to the 5th century AD.Contents1 History 2 Description 3 Phonology 4 Examples 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksHistory[edit] The Punics
Punics
stayed in contact with Phoenicia
Phoenicia
until the destruction of Carthage by the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
in 146 BC. While Punic was spoken, it underwent many changes under Berber influence
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Apollo
Apollo
Apollo
(Attic, Ionic, and Homeric
Homeric
Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (GEN Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Latin: Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology. The ideal of the kouros (a beardless, athletic youth), Apollo
Apollo
has been variously recognized as a god of music, truth and prophecy, healing, the sun and light, plague, poetry, and more. Apollo
Apollo
is the son of Zeus
Zeus
and Leto, and has a twin sister, the chaste huntress Artemis
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Limestone
Limestone
Limestone
is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years
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Tyre, Lebanon
Tyre (Arabic: صور‎, Ṣūr; Phoenician: 𐤑𐤓‬, Ṣur; Hebrew: צוֹר‬, Tsor; Tiberian Hebrew
Tiberian Hebrew
צֹר‬, Ṣōr; Akkadian: 𒀫𒊒, Ṣurru; Greek: Τύρος, Týros; Turkish: Sur; Latin: Tyrus, Armenian: Տիր, Tir), sometimes romanized as Sour, is a district capital in the South Governorate
South Governorate
of Lebanon. There were approximately 117,000 inhabitants in 2003.[1] However, the government of Lebanon
Lebanon
has released only rough estimates of population numbers since 1932, so an accurate statistical accounting is not possible.[2] Tyre juts out from the coast of the Mediterranean and is located about 80 km (50 mi) south of Beirut. The name of the city means "rock"[3] after the rocky formation on which the town was originally built
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Cyprus
Cyprus,[f] officially the Republic of Cyprus,[g] is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean. Cyprus
Cyprus
is located south of Turkey, west of Syria
Syria
and Lebanon, northwest of Israel, north of Egypt, and southeast of Greece. The earliest known human activity on the island dates to around the 10th millennium BC. Archaeological remains from this period include the well-preserved Neolithic
Neolithic
village of Khirokitia, and Cyprus
Cyprus
is home to some of the oldest water wells in the world.[9] Cyprus
Cyprus
was settled by Mycenaean Greeks in two waves in the 2nd millennium BC
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Melqart
Melqart
Melqart
(Phoenician: 𐤌𐤋𐤊𐤒𐤓𐤕‬, lit. Melek-qart, "King of the City";[1][2] Akkadian: Milqartu) was the tutelary god of the Phoenician city of Tyre. Melqart
Melqart
was often titled Ba‘l Ṣūr, "Lord of Tyre", and considered to be the ancestor of the Tyrian royal family.[citation needed] In Greek, by interpretatio graeca he was identified with Heracles
Heracles
and referred to as the Tyrian Herakles. As Tyrian trade and colonization expanded, Melqart
Melqart
became venerated in Phoenician and Punic
Punic
cultures from Lebanon to Spain
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Numidia
French Algeria
Algeria
(19th - 20th centuries)French conquest French governorsResistance PacificationEmir Abdelkader Fatma N'SoumerMokrani Revolt Cheikh BouamamaNationalism RCUA FLN GPRAAlgerian War 1958 putsch 1961 putschÉvian Accords Independence referendumPied-Noir Harkis Oujda GroupContemporary era 1960s–80sArab nationalism 1965 putschBerber Spring 1988 Riots1990s Algerian Civil War
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Greek Mythology
Greek mythology
Greek mythology
is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. It was a part of the religion in ancient Greece. Modern scholars refer to and study the myths in an attempt to shed light on the religious and political institutions of ancient Greece and its civilization, and to gain understanding of the nature of myth-making itself.[1] Greek mythology
Greek mythology
has had an extensive influence on the culture, arts, and literature of Western civilization and remains part of Western heritage and language
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Ancient Egyptian Religion
Ancient Egyptian religion
Ancient Egyptian religion
was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals which were an integral part of ancient Egyptian society. It centered on the Egyptians' interaction with many deities who were believed to be present in, and in control of, the forces of nature. Rituals such as prayers and offerings were efforts to provide for the gods and gain their favor. Formal religious practice centered on the pharaoh, the ruler of Egypt, who was believed to possess a divine power by virtue of their position. He acted as the intermediary between their people and the gods and was obligated to sustain the gods through rituals and offerings so that they could maintain order in the universe. The state dedicated enormous resources to Egyptian rituals and to the construction of the temples. Individuals could interact with the gods for their own purposes, appealing for their help through prayer or compelling them to act through magic
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Dionysus
Dionysus
Dionysus
(/daɪ.əˈnaɪsəs/; Greek: Διόνυσος Dionysos) is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, fertility,[2][3] theatre and religious ecstasy in ancient Greek religion and myth. Wine
Wine
played an important role in Greek culture, and the cult of Dionysus
Dionysus
was the main religious focus for its unrestrained consumption.[4] His worship became firmly established in the seventh century BC.[5] He may have been worshipped as early as c. 1500–1100 BC by Mycenean Greeks;[6][7] traces of Dionysian-type cult have also been found in ancient Minoan Crete.[8] His origins are uncertain, and his cults took many forms; some are described by ancient sources as Thracian, others as Greek.[9][10][11] In some cults, he arrives from the east, as an Asiatic foreigner; in others, from Ethiopia
Ethiopia
in the South
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West Africa
West
West
Africa, also called Western Africa
Africa
and the West
West
of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa
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Essaouira
Essaouira
Essaouira
(Arabic: الصويرة‎; Berber languages: ⵎⵓⴳⴰⴹⵓⵔ, Mugadur), formerly known as Mogador, is a city in the western Moroccan economic region of Marrakesh-Safi, on the Atlantic
Atlantic
coast
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Lixus (ancient City)
Lixus is the site of an ancient Roman-Berber-Punic city located in Morocco, just north of the modern seaport of Larache
Larache
on the bank of the Loukkos River. The location was one of the main cities of the Roman province
Roman province
of Mauretania
Mauretania
Tingitana.[1]Contents1 Geography 2 History 3 Archaeological works 4 World Heritage
World Heritage
Status 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksGeography[edit] Ancient Lixus is located on Tchemmich Hill
Tchemmich Hill
on the right bank of the Loukkos River
Loukkos River
(other names: Oued Loukous; Locus River). It lies just to the north of the modern seaport of Larache.[2] The site lies within the urban perimeter of Larache, and about three kilometres inland from the mouth of the river and the Atlantic ocean
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Volubilis
Volubilis
Volubilis
(Arabic: وليلي‎, Berber: Walili) is a partly excavated Roman city in Morocco
Morocco
situated near the city of Meknes, and commonly considered as the ancient capital of the Roman-Berber kingdom of Mauretania.[1] Built in a fertile agricultural area, it developed from the 3rd century BC onward as a Berber and Phoenician-Carthaginian settlement before being the capital of the Berber kingdom of Mauretania. It grew rapidly under Roman rule from the 1st century AD onward to the end of 3rd century, and expanded to cover about 42 hectares (100 acres) with a 2.6 km (1.6 mi) circuit of walls. The city gained a number of major public buildings in the 2nd century, including a basilica, temple and triumphal arch
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Chellah
The Chellah
Chellah
(Berber languages: Calla or Sla; Arabic: شالة‎, translit. Shillah),[1][2] is a medieval fortified Muslim necropolis located in the metro area of Rabat, Morocco, on the south (left) side of the Bou Regreg
Bou Regreg
estuary. The Phoenicians established a trading emporium at the site and called it "Sala".[3][4] This was later the site of the ancient Roman colony of "Sala Colonia",[5] in the Roman province of Mauretania
Mauretania
Tingitana. Salā was the name given to the city founded by the Muslim conquerors of North Africa, which was mostly abandoned during the Almohad
Almohad
era, then rebuilt by the Marinids
Marinids
in the 13th century. The ruins of their medieval fortress are still extant. The Berber Almohads
Almohads
used the site as a royal burial ground
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