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Carthaginians
The PUNICS (from Latin
Latin
pūnicus, pl. pūnici), also known as CARTHAGINIANS, were a people from Ancient Carthage in modern-day Tunisia
Tunisia
, North Africa, who traced their origins to the Berbers and Phoenicians . PUNIC is the English adjective derived from the Latin adjective punicus to describe anything Carthaginian. Their language, Punic , was a dialect of Phoenician . Unlike their Phoenician ancestors, Carthaginians had a landowning aristocracy who established a rule of the hinterland in Northern Africa and trans-Saharan trade routes . In later times one of these clans established a Hellenistic -inspired empire in Iberia , possibly having a foothold in western Gaul
Gaul

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Essaouira
ESSAOUIRA ( Arabic
Arabic
: الصويرة‎‎; Berber : MUGADUR), formerly known as MOGADOR, is a city in the western Moroccan economic region of Marrakesh-Safi , on the Atlantic
Atlantic
coast . The modern name means "the little rampart", a reference to the fortress walls that still enclose part of the city
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Punic Language
The PUNIC LANGUAGE, also called CARTHAGINIAN or PHOENICIO-PUNIC, is an extinct variety of the Phoenician language
Phoenician language
, a Canaanite language of the Semitic family . It was spoken in the Carthaginian empire in North Africa
North Africa
and several Mediterranean islands by the Punic people throughout classical antiquity , from the 8th century BC to the 5th century AD. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Description * 3 Phonology * 4 Examples * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYThe Punics
Punics
stayed in contact with Phoenicia
Phoenicia
until the destruction of Carthage by the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
in 146 BC. While Punic was spoken, it underwent many changes under Berber influence
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Smelting
SMELTING is a form of extractive metallurgy ; its main use is to produce a base metal from its ore . This includes production of silver , iron , copper and other base metals from their ores. Smelting makes use of heat and a chemical reducing agent to decompose the ore, driving off other elements as gases or slag and leaving just the metal base behind. The reducing agent is commonly a source of carbon such as coke , or in earlier times charcoal . The carbon (or carbon monoxide derived from it) removes oxygen from the ore, leaving behind the elemental metal. The carbon is thus oxidized in two stages, producing first carbon monoxide and then carbon dioxide . As most ores are impure, it is often necessary to use flux , such as limestone , to remove the accompanying rock gangue as slag. Plants for the electrolytic reduction of aluminium are also generally referred to as aluminium smelters
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Limestone
LIMESTONE is a sedimentary rock , composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral , forams and molluscs . Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite , which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Limestone
Limestone
has numerous uses: as a building material , an essential component of concrete ( Portland cement
Portland cement
), as aggregate for the base of roads, as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints , as a chemical feedstock for the production of lime , as a soil conditioner , or as a popular decorative addition to rock gardens
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Lixus (ancient City)
LIXUS is the site of an ancient Roman -Berber -Punic city located in Morocco
Morocco
, just north of the modern seaport of Larache
Larache
on the bank of the Loukkos River . The location was one of the main cities of the Roman province
Roman province
of Mauretania Tingitana
Mauretania Tingitana
. CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 History * 3 Archaeological works * 4 World Heritage
World Heritage
Status * 5 See also * 6 Line notes * 7 External links GEOGRAPHYAncient Lixus is located on Tchemmich Hill on the right bank of the Loukkos River (other names: Oued Loukous; Locus River). It lies just to the north of the modern seaport of Larache
Larache

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Lake
A LAKE is an area of variable size filled with water, localized in a basin , that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake. Lakes lie on land and are not part of the ocean , and therefore are distinct from lagoons , and are also larger and deeper than ponds , though there are no official or scientific definitions. Lakes can be contrasted with rivers or streams , which are usually flowing. Most lakes are fed and drained by rivers and streams. Natural lakes are generally found in mountainous areas, rift zones , and areas with ongoing glaciation . Other lakes are found in endorheic basins or along the courses of mature rivers. In some parts of the world there are many lakes because of chaotic drainage patterns left over from the last Ice Age
Ice Age
. All lakes are temporary over geologic time scales, as they will slowly fill in with sediments or spill out of the basin containing them
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Dionysus
DIONYSUS (/daɪ.əˈnaɪsəs/ ; Greek : Διόνυσος Dionysos) is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, fertility, theatre and religious ecstasy in ancient Greek religion and myth . Wine
Wine
played an important role in Greek culture, and the cult of Dionysus
Dionysus
was the main religious focus for its unrestrained consumption. His worship became firmly established in the seventh century BC. He may have been worshipped as early as c. 1500–1100 BC by Mycenean Greeks ; traces of Dionysian-type cult have also been found in ancient Minoan Crete . His origins are uncertain, and his cults took many forms; some are described by ancient sources as Thracian, others as Greek. In some cults, he arrives from the east, as an Asiatic foreigner; in others, from Ethiopia
Ethiopia
in the South
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Tyre, Lebanon
TYRE (Arabic : صور‎‎, Ṣūr; Phoenician : 𐤑𐤅𐤓, Ṣur; Hebrew : צוֹר‎, Tsor; Tiberian Hebrew צֹר‎, Ṣōr; Akkadian : 𒀫𒊒, Ṣurru; Greek : Τύρος, Týros; Turkish : Sur; Latin : Tyrus, Armenian Տիր ), sometimes romanized as SOUR, is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon
Lebanon
. There were approximately 117,000 inhabitants in 2003. However, the government of Lebanon
Lebanon
has released only rough estimates of population numbers since 1932, so an accurate statistical accounting is not possible. Tyre juts out from the coast of the Mediterranean and is located about 80 km (50 mi) south of Beirut
Beirut
. The name of the city means "rock " after the rocky formation on which the town was originally built. The adjective for Tyre is Tyrian, and the inhabitants are Tyrians
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Ancient Egyptian Religion
ANCIENT EGYPTIAN RELIGION was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals which were an integral part of ancient Egyptian society. It centered on the Egyptians' interaction with many deities who were believed to be present in, and in control of, the forces of nature. Rituals such as prayers and offerings were efforts to provide for the gods and gain their favor. Formal religious practice centered on the pharaoh , the king of Egypt, who was believed to possess a divine power by virtue of his position. He acted as the intermediary between his people and the gods and was obligated to sustain the gods through rituals and offerings so that they could maintain order in the universe . The state dedicated enormous resources to Egyptian rituals and to the construction of the temples . Individuals could interact with the gods for their own purposes, appealing for their help through prayer or compelling them to act through magic
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Apollo
APOLLO (Attic , Ionic , and Homeric Greek : Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (GEN Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric : Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot : Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic : Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Latin : Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology
Roman mythology
. The ideal of the kouros (a beardless, athletic youth), Apollo
Apollo
has been variously recognized as a god of music, truth and prophecy, healing, the sun and light, plague, poetry, and more. Apollo
Apollo
is the son of Zeus
Zeus
and Leto , and has a twin sister, the chaste huntress Artemis
Artemis
. Apollo
Apollo
is known in Greek-influenced Etruscan mythology as Apulu
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Greek Mythology
GREEK MYTHOLOGY is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks , concerning their gods and heroes , the nature of the world , and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. It was a part of the religion in ancient Greece . Modern scholars refer to and study the myths in an attempt to shed light on the religious and political institutions of ancient Greece and its civilization, and to gain understanding of the nature of myth-making itself. Greek mythology
Greek mythology
has had an extensive influence on the culture, arts, and literature of Western civilization and remains part of Western heritage and language. Poets and artists from ancient times to the present have derived inspiration from Greek mythology
Greek mythology
and have discovered contemporary significance and relevance in the themes
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Numidia
NUMIDIA (202 BC – 40 BC, Berber : INUMIDEN) was an ancient Berber kingdom of the Numidians , located in what is now Algeria
Algeria
and a smaller part of Tunisia
Tunisia
and Libya
Libya
in the Berber world , in North Africa. The polity was originally divided between Massylii in the east and Masaesyli in the west. During the Second Punic War
Second Punic War
(218-201 BC), Massinissa
Massinissa
, king of the Massylii, defeated Syphax of the Masaesyli to unify Numidia
Numidia
into one kingdom. The kingdom began as a sovereign state and later alternated between being a Roman province
Roman province
and a Roman client state
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Cyprus
CYPRUS, officially the REPUBLIC OF CYPRUS, is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean . Cyprus
Cyprus
is located south of Turkey
Turkey
, west of Syria
Syria
and Lebanon
Lebanon
, northwest of Israel
Israel
, north of Egypt
Egypt
, and southeast of Greece
Greece
. The earliest known human activity on the island dates to around the 10th millennium BC. Archaeological remains from this period include the well-preserved Neolithic
Neolithic
village of Khirokitia , and Cyprus
Cyprus
is home to some of the oldest water wells in the world
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Melqart
Small text A Carthaginian shekel , dated 237–227 BC, depicting the Punic
Punic
god Melqart
Melqart
(equivalent of
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Volubilis
VOLUBILIS (Berber : Walili, Arabic : وليلي‎‎) is a partly excavated Berber and Roman city in Morocco
Morocco
situated near the city of Meknes
Meknes
, and commonly considered as the ancient capital of the kingdom of Mauretania . Built in a fertile agricultural area, it developed from the 3rd century BC onward as a Berber, then proto-Carthaginian , settlement before being the capital of the kingdom of Mauretania. It grew rapidly under Roman rule from the 1st century AD onward and expanded to cover about 42 hectares (100 acres) with a 2.6 km (1.6 mi) circuit of walls. The city gained a number of major public buildings in the 2nd century, including a basilica , temple and triumphal arch . Its prosperity, which was derived principally from olive growing, prompted the construction of many fine town-houses with large mosaic floors
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