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Carnivals
Carnival
Carnival
(see other spellings and names) is a Western Christian and Greek Orthodox
Greek Orthodox
festive season that occurs before the liturgical season of Lent.[2] The main events typically occur during February or early March, during the period historically known as Shrovetide (or Pre-Lent). Carnival
Carnival
typically involves a public celebration or parade combining some elements of a circus, masks, and a public street party. People wear masks and costumes during many such celebrations, allowing them to lose their everyday individuality and experience a heightened sense of social unity.[3] Excessive consumption of alcohol,[4] meat, and other foods proscribed during Lent
Lent
is extremely common
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Fasting
Fasting
Fasting
is the willing abstinence or reduction from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time. An absolute fast or dry fasting is normally defined as abstinence from all food and liquid for a defined period, usually 24 hours, or a number of days. Water fasting allows the drinking of water, but nothing else, although black coffee and tea may be consumed. Other fasts may be partially restrictive, limiting only particular foods or substances, or be intermittent. In a physiological context, fasting may refer to the metabolic status of a person who has not eaten overnight, or to the metabolic state achieved after complete digestion and absorption of a meal. Several metabolic adjustments occur during fasting. Some diagnostic tests are used to determine a fasting state
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Spanish Language
The Spanish language
Spanish language
(/ˈspænɪʃ/ ( listen);  Español (help·info)), also called the Castilian language[4] (/kæˈstɪliən/ ( listen),  castellano (help·info)), is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain
Spain
and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin
Latin
America and Spain. It is usually considered the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.[5][6][7][8][9] Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages, which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
in the 5th century
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Great Lent
Great Lent, or the Great Fast, (Greek: Μεγάλη Τεσσαρακοστή or Μεγάλη Νηστεία, meaning "Great 40 Days," and "Great Fast," respectively) is the most important fasting season in the church year in the Byzantine Rite
Byzantine Rite
of the Eastern Orthodox Church (including Western Rite Orthodoxy) and the Eastern Catholic Churches, which prepares Christians for the greatest feast of the church year, Pascha (Easter). In many ways Great Lent
Lent
is similar to Lent
Lent
in Western Christianity. There are some differences in the timing of Lent
Lent
(besides calculating the date of Easter) and how it is practiced, both liturgically in the public worship of the church and individually. One difference between Eastern Christianity
Christianity
and Western Christianity is the calculation of the date of Easter
Easter
(see Computus)
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German Language
No official regulation ( German orthography
German orthography
regulated by the Council for German Orthography[4]). Language
Language
codesISO 639-1 deISO 639-2 ger
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Europe
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Netherlands
The Netherlands
The Netherlands
(/ˈnɛðərləndz/ ( listen); Dutch: Nederland [ˈneːdərˌlɑnt] ( listen)), also known informally as Holland, is a country in Western Europe
Europe
with a population of seventeen million
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Advent
Advent
Advent
is a season observed in many Christian
Christian
churches as a time of expectant waiting and preparation for the celebration of the Nativity of Jesus
Jesus
at Christmas
Christmas
as well as the return of Jesus
Jesus
at the second coming. The term is a version of the Latin word meaning "coming". The term "Advent" is also used in Eastern Orthodoxy
Eastern Orthodoxy
for the 40-day Nativity Fast, which has practices different from those in the West.[3] Latin adventus is the translation of the Greek word parousia, commonly used to refer to the Second Coming
Second Coming
of Christ. For Christians, the season of Advent
Advent
anticipates the coming of Christ from three different perspectives
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St. Martin's Day
Saint Martin's day, also known as the Feast of Saint Martin, Martinstag or Martinmas, as well as Old Halloween
Halloween
and Old Hallowmas Eve,[1][2] is the feast day of Saint Martin of Tours
Saint Martin of Tours
(Martin le Miséricordieux) and is celebrated on November 11 each year. This is the time when autumn wheat seeding was completed, and the annual slaughter of fattened cattle produced "Martinmas beef".[3] Historically, hiring fairs were held where farm laborers would seek new posts. Saint Martin of Tours
Saint Martin of Tours
was a Roman soldier who was baptised as an adult and became a monk. The most famous legend concerning him was that he had once cut his cloak in half to share with a beggar during a snowstorm, to save the latter from the cold
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Dutch Language
 Aruba  Belgium  Curaçao  Netherlands  Sint Maarten  Suriname Benelux European Union South American Union CaricomRegulated by Nederlandse Taalunie (Dutch Language Union)Language codesISO 639-1 nlISO 639-2 dut (B) nld (T)ISO 639-3 nld Dutch/FlemishGlottolog mode1257[4]Linguasphere 52-ACB-aDutch-speaking world (included are areas of daughter-language Afrikaans)Distribution of the Dutch language
Dutch language
and its dialects in Western EuropeThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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French Language
French (le français [lə fʁɑ̃sɛ] ( listen) or la langue française [la lɑ̃ɡ fʁɑ̃sɛz]) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France
France
and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages
Celtic languages
of Northern Roman Gaul
Gaul
like Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders
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Portuguese Language
Argentina
Argentina
(South America) Indonesia
Indonesia
(Asia)[4][5] Senegal
Senegal
(Africa) South Africa
Africa
(Africa) Namibia
Namibia
(Africa) Uruguay
Uruguay
(South America)[6][7][8]Numerous international organisationsRegulated by International Portuguese Language Institute Academia Brasileira de Letras (Brazil) Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, Classe de Letras (Portugal) Academia Galega da Língua Portuguesa (Galicia) CPLPLanguage codesISO 639-1 ptISO 639-2 porISO 639-3 porGlottolog port1283[9]Linguasphere 51-AAA-a  Native language   Official and administrative language   Cultural or secondary language   Portuguese speaking minorities   Portuguese-based creole languagesThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols
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Carnival (other)
Carnival is a festive season occurring immediately before Lent. Carnival or carnaval or The Carnival may also refer to:Contents1 Traveling entertainment 2 Transport 3 Literature 4 Film and television4.1 Film4.1.1 Television5 Performing arts 6 Other uses 7 Music7.1 Classical music 7.2 Performers 7.3 Albums 7.4 Songs8 See alsoTraveling entertainment[edit]Traveling carnival, an amusement show typically including rides, games, etc.Transport[edit]Carnival Cruise LineCarnival Corporation & plc, the parent company of Carnival Cruise LineKia Carnival, a car SS Carnivale, a steamship operating 1975-1993Literature[edit]Carnival, a 1912 novel by Compton Mackenzie Carnival (Antoni novel), a 2005 novel by Robert Antoni Carnival (Bear novel), a 2006 science fiction novel by Elizabeth Bear "The Carnival" (short story), a 1980 short story by Michael Fedo "Carnival! Carnival!", a poem by Patti S
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Italian Language
Italian ( italiano (help·info) [itaˈljaːno] or lingua italiana [ˈliŋɡwa itaˈljaːna]) is a Romance language. Italian is by most measures, together with the Sardinian language, the closest tongue to vulgar Latin
Latin
of the Romance languages.[7] Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City
Vatican City
and western Istria
Istria
(in Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia). It used to have official status in Albania, Malta
Malta
and Monaco, where it is still widely spoken, as well as in former Italian East Africa
Italian East Africa
and Italian North Africa regions where it plays a significant role in various sectors
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Folk Etymology
Folk etymology or reanalysis – sometimes called pseudo-etymology, popular etymology, or analogical reformation – is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one.[1][2][3] The form or the meaning of an archaic, foreign, or otherwise unfamiliar word is reanalyzed as resembling more familiar words or morphemes. Rebracketing is a form of folk etymology in which a word is broken down or "bracketed" into a new set of supposed elements
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