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Carnegie Institution
The Carnegie Institution of Washington (the organization's legal name), known also for public purposes as the Carnegie Institution for Science (CIS), is an organization in the United States established to fund and perform scientific research. The institution is headquartered in Washington, D.C.Contents1 Name 2 History2.1 Early grants 2.2 Research of special note 2.3 World War II3 Present 4 Research 5 Administration 6 Funding for eugenics 7 Presidents of the CIW 8 References 9 External linksName[edit] Beginning during 1895, Andrew Carnegie
Andrew Carnegie
donated his vast fortune to establish over 20 organizations (see The Carnegie Confusion) around the world that now feature his surname and perform work involving topics as diverse as art, education, international affairs, world peace, and scientific research
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Milky Way
The Milky Way
Milky Way
is the galaxy[21][nb 1] that contains our Solar System.[22] The descriptive "milky" is derived from the appearance from Earth
Earth
of the galaxy – a band of light seen in the night sky formed from stars that cannot be individually distinguished by the naked eye. The term Milky Way
Milky Way
is a translation of the Latin
Latin
via lactea, from the Greek γαλαξίας κύκλος (galaxías kýklos, "milky circle").[23][24][25] From Earth, the Milky Way appears as a band because its disk-shaped structure is viewed from within. Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
first resolved the band of light into individual stars with his telescope in 1610
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George Sarton
George may refer to:Contents1 People 2 Places2.1 Australia 2.2 Canada 2.3 South Africa 2.4 United States3 In computing 4 Film and television 5 Books 6 Music 7 In transport 8 Other uses 9 See alsoPeople[edit] George (given name) George (surname) King George (other) Saint George George Washington (other)Places[edit] Australia[edit]Lake George (New South Wales)Canada[edit]George's Brook, Newfoundland and Labrador George Street (St. John's), NewfoundlandSouth Africa[edit]George, Western Cape George AirportUnited States[edit] George Air Force Base, a former U.S
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Astronomy
Astronomy
Astronomy
(from Greek: ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It applies mathematics, physics, and chemistry, in an effort to explain the origin of those objects and phenomena and their evolution. Objects of interest include planets, moons, stars, galaxies, and comets; the phenomena include supernova explosions, gamma ray bursts, and cosmic microwave background radiation. More generally, all phenomena that originate outside Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
are within the purview of astronomy. A related but distinct subject, physical cosmology, is concerned with the study of the Universe
Universe
as a whole.[1] Astronomy
Astronomy
is one of the oldest of the natural sciences
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Proximity Fuze
A proximity fuze is a fuze that detonates an explosive device automatically when the distance to the target becomes smaller than a predetermined value. Proximity fuzes are designed for targets such as planes, missiles, ships at sea and ground forces. They provide a more sophisticated trigger mechanism than the common contact fuze or timed fuze. It is estimated that it increases the lethality by 5 to 10 times, compared to these other fuzes.[1] British military researchers Sir Samuel Curran
Samuel Curran
and W. A. S. Butement invented a proximity fuze in the early stages of World War II
World War II
under the name VT, an acronym of "Variable Time fuze".[2] The system was a small, short range, Doppler radar. However, Britain lacked the capacity to develop the fuze, so the design was shown to the United States during the Tizard Mission in late 1940
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Office Of Scientific Research And Development
The Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) was an agency of the United States
United States
federal government created to coordinate scientific research for military purposes during World War II. Arrangements were made for its creation during May 1941, and it was created formally by Executive Order 8807 on June 28, 1941
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Ecology
Ecology
Ecology
(from Greek: οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of")[A] is the branch of biology[1] which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment. Objects of study include interactions of organisms with each other and with abiotic components of their environment. Topics of interest include the biodiversity, distribution, biomass, and populations of organisms, as well as cooperation and competition within and between species. Ecosystems
Ecosystems
are dynamically interacting systems of organisms, the communities they make up, and the non-living components of their environment. Ecosystem
Ecosystem
processes, such as primary production, pedogenesis, nutrient cycling, and niche construction, regulate the flux of energy and matter through an environment. These processes are sustained by organisms with specific life history traits
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Genetics
Genetics
Genetics
is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.[1][2] It is generally considered a field of biology, but intersects frequently with many other life sciences and is strongly linked with the study of information systems. The father of genetics is Gregor Mendel, a late 19th-century scientist and Augustinian
Augustinian
friar. Mendel studied "trait inheritance", patterns in the way traits are handed down from parents to offspring. He observed that organisms (pea plants) inherit traits by way of discrete "units of inheritance". This term, still used today, is a somewhat ambiguous definition of what is referred to as a gene. Trait inheritance and molecular inheritance mechanisms of genes are still primary principles of genetics in the 21st century, but modern genetics has expanded beyond inheritance to studying the function and behavior of genes
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Developmental Biology
Developmental biology
Developmental biology
is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop
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Embryology
Embryology
Embryology
(from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses
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Plant Science
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word βοτάνη (botanē) meaning "pasture", "grass", or "fodder"; βοτάνη is in turn derived from βόσκειν (boskein), "to feed" or "to graze".[1][2][3] Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress
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Scientific Research
The scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge.[2] To be termed scientific, a method of inquiry is commonly based on empirical or measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning.[3] The Oxford Dictionaries Online defines the scientific method as "a method or procedure that has characterized natural science since the 17th century, consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses".[4] Experiments are a procedure designed to test hypotheses. Experiments are an important tool of the scientific method.[5][6] The method is a continuous process that begins with observations about the natural world. People are naturally inquisitive, so they often come up with questions about things they see or hear, and they often develop ideas or hypotheses about why things are the way they are
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Fort Jefferson National Monument
Dry Tortugas
Dry Tortugas
National Park is a national park in the United States about 68 miles (109 km) west of Key West
Key West
in the Gulf of Mexico. The park preserves Fort Jefferson and the seven Dry Tortugas
Dry Tortugas
islands, the westernmost and most isolated of the Florida
Florida
Keys. The archipelago's coral reefs are the least disturbed of the Florida
Florida
Keys reefs. The park is noted for abundant sea life, tropical bird breeding grounds, colorful coral reefs, and legends of shipwrecks and sunken treasures. The park's centerpiece is Fort Jefferson, a massive but unfinished coastal fortress. Fort Jefferson is the largest brick masonry structure in the Western Hemisphere,[3][4] and is composed of more than 16 million bricks
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Nobel Peace Prize
The Nobel Peace
Peace
Prize (Swedish: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature. Since March 1901,[3] it has been awarded annually (with some exceptions) to those who have "done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses".[4] As per Alfred Nobel's will, the recipient is selected by the Norwegian Nobel Committee, a five-member committee appointed by the Parliament of Norway. Since 1990, the prize is awarded on 10 December in Oslo City Hall each year
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Planetary Science
Planetary science
Planetary science
or, more rarely, planetology, is the scientific study of planets (including Earth), moons, and planetary systems (in particular those of the Solar System) and the processes that form them. It studies objects ranging in size from micrometeoroids to gas giants, aiming to determine their composition, dynamics, formation, interrelations and history. It is a strongly interdisciplinary field, originally growing from astronomy and earth science,[1] but which now incorporates many disciplines, including planetary geology (together with geochemistry and geophysics), cosmochemistry, atmospheric science, oceanography, hydrology, theoretical planetary science, glaciology, and exoplanetology.[1] Allied disciplines include space physics, when concerned with the effects of the Sun
Sun
on the bodies of the Solar System, and astrobiology. There are interrelated observational and theoretical branches of planetary science
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Robert H. Goddard
Robert Hutchings Goddard (October 5, 1882 – August 10, 1945) was an American engineer, professor, physicist, and inventor who is credited with creating and building the world's first liquid-fueled rocket.[2] Goddard successfully launched his model on March 16, 1926, ushering in an era of space flight and innovation
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