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Carlisle Cathedral
The Cathedral Church of the Holy and Undivided Trinity, otherwise called Carlisle Cathedral, is the seat of the Anglican Bishop
Bishop
of Carlisle. It is located in Carlisle, in Cumbria, North West England. It was founded as an Augustinian priory and became a cathedral in 1133.[1] Carlisle, because of heavy losses to its fabric, is the second smallest (after Oxford), of England's ancient cathedrals
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Covenanter
The Covenanters were a Scottish Presbyterian
Presbyterian
movement that played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent that of England and Ireland, during the 17th century. Presbyterian denominations tracing their history to the Covenanters and often incorporating the name continue the ideas and traditions in Scotland and internationally. They derived their name from the word covenant meaning a band, legal document or agreement, with particular reference to the Covenant between God and the Israelites in the Old Testament
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Canons Regular
Canons regular
Canons regular
are priests in the Western Church living in community under a rule ("regula" in Latin), and sharing their property in common.Contents1 Preliminary distinctions 2 Background 3 History3.1 Ordo Antiquus3.1.1 Augustine 3.1.2 Chrodegang
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Asceticism
Asceticism
Asceticism
(/əˈsɛtɪsɪzəm/; from the Greek: ἄσκησις áskesis, "exercise, training") is a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from sensual pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals. Ascetics may withdraw from the world for their practices or continue to be part of their society, but typically adopt a frugal lifestyle, characterised by the renunciation of material possessions and physical pleasures, and time spent fasting while concentrating on the practice of religion or reflection upon spiritual matters.[3] Asceticism
Asceticism
is classified into two types
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Cistercian
A Cistercian is a member of the Cistercian Order (/sɪˈstɜːrʃən/,[1] abbreviated as OCist or SOCist (Latin: (Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis), a religious order of monks and nuns. They are variously called the Bernardines, after the highly influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux
Bernard of Clairvaux
(though the term is also used of the Franciscan Order in Poland
Poland
and Lithuania), or the White Monks, in reference to the colour of the "cuccula" or white choir robe worn by the Cistercians
Cistercians
over their habits, as opposed to the black cuccula worn by Benedictine
Benedictine
monks. The original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales
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William De Corbeil
William de Corbeil
William de Corbeil
or William of Corbeil (c. 1070 – 1136) was a medieval Archbishop of Canterbury. Very little is known of William's early life or his family, except that he was born at Corbeil in the outskirts of Paris and that he had two brothers. Educated as a theologian, he taught briefly before serving the bishops of Durham and London as a clerk and subsequently becoming a canon, a priest who lived a communal life. William was elected to the see of Canterbury
Canterbury
as a compromise candidate in 1123, the first canon to become an English archbishop. He succeeded Ralph d'Escures, who had employed him as a chaplain. Throughout his archbishopric, William was embroiled in a dispute with Thurstan, the Archbishop of York, over the primacy of Canterbury. As a temporary solution, the pope appointed William the papal legate for England, giving him powers superior to those of York
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Edward I
Edward
Edward
I (17/18 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots (Latin: Malleus Scotorum), was King of England
King of England
from 1272 to 1307. Before his accession to the throne, he was commonly referred to as The Lord Edward.[1] He spent much of his reign reforming royal administration and common law. Through an extensive legal inquiry, Edward
Edward
investigated the tenure of various feudal liberties, while the law was reformed through a series of statutes regulating criminal and property law. Increasingly, however, Edward's attention was drawn towards military affairs. As the first son of Henry III, Edward
Edward
was involved early in the political intrigues of his father's reign, which included an outright rebellion by the English barons. In 1259, he briefly sided with a baronial reform movement, supporting the Provisions of Oxford
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Dissolution Of The Monasteries
The Dissolution of the Monasteries, sometimes referred to as the Suppression of the Monasteries, was the set of anti-Catholic administrative and legal processes between 1536 and 1541 by which Henry VIII disbanded Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
monasteries, priories, convents and friaries in England and Wales
Wales
and Ireland, appropriated their income, disposed of their assets, and provided for their former personnel and functions
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English Civil War
Parliamentarian victoryExecution of King Charles I Exile of Charles II Establishment of the republican Commonwealth under Oliver CromwellBelligerentsEnglish, Scottish, Welsh and Irish Royalists English, Scottish, Welsh and Irish ParliamentariansCommanders and leadersKing Charles I   Prince Rupert
Prince Rupert
of the Rhine Charles IIEarl of Essex Thomas Fairfax Oliver CromwellCasualties and losses50,000[1] 34,000[1]127,000 noncombat deaths (including some 40,000 civilians)[a]v t eEnglish Civil WarFirst Second ThirdThe English Civil War
English Civil War
(1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's government
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Scot
 Scotland   4,446,000 (2011) (Scottish descent only)[2] United StatesB 6,006,955 Scottish 5,393,554 Scotch-Irish[3][4][unreliable source?] CanadaC[further explanation needed] 4,719,850[5] Australia 2,023,474[6] EnglandD 795,000[7]:8 Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
E 760,620[citation needed] Argentina 100,000[citation needed] Chile 80,000[citation needed] Brazil 45,000[citation needed] France 45,000[citation needed]
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Carlisle Castle
Carlisle Castle
Castle
is situated in Carlisle, in the English county of Cumbria, near the ruins of Hadrian's Wall. The castle is over 900 years old and has been the scene of many historical episodes in British history. Given the proximity of Carlisle to the border between England and Scotland, it has been the centre of many wars and invasions. Today the castle is managed by English Heritage
English Heritage
and is open to the public
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Carlisle Franciscan Friary
Carlisle Franciscan Friary was a medieval monastic house in Cumbria, England. References[edit]Coordinates: 54°53′35″N 2°56′02″W / 54.893115°N 2.933816°W / 54.893115; -2.933816 (Carlisle Franciscan Friary)This article about a Cumbria building or structure is a stub. You can help by expanding it.v t eThis article about a British Christian monastery, abbey, priory or other religious house is a stub
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Border Regiment
The Border Regiment
Regiment
was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, which was formed in 1881 under the Childers Reforms by the amalgamation of the 34th (Cumberland) Regiment
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Owen Jones (architect)
Owen Jones (15 February 1809 – 19 April 1874) was an English-born Welsh architect. A versatile architect and designer, he was also one of the most influential design theorists of the nineteenth century.[1] He helped pioneer modern colour theory,[2] and his theories on flat patterning and ornament still resonate with contemporary designers today. He rose to prominence with his studies of Islamic decoration at the Alhambra, and the associated publication of his drawings, which pioneered new standards in chromolithography. Jones was a pivotal figure in the formation of the South Kensington Museum
South Kensington Museum
(later to become the V&A) through his close association with Henry Cole, the museum's first director, and another key figure in 19th century design reform
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Misericord
A misericord (sometimes named mercy seat, like the Biblical object) is a small wooden structure formed on the underside of a folding seat in a church which, when the seat is folded up, is intended to act as a shelf to support a person in a partially standing position during long periods of prayer.[1]Contents1 Origins 2 History 3 Misericord
Misericord
(room) 4 Present day 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksOrigins[edit] Prayers in the early medieval church at the daily divine offices (i.e. Matins, Lauds, Prime, Terce, Sext, None, Vespers, and Compline) were said standing with uplifted hands. The old or infirm could use crutches or, as time went on, a misericordia (literally "act of mercy"). For these times of required standing, seating was constructed so that the seats could be turned up. However, the undersides sometimes had a small shelf, a misericord, allowing the user to lean against it, slightly reducing their discomfort
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