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Carland Cross
A cross is a geometrical figure consisting of two intersecting lines or bars, usually perpendicular to each other. The lines usually run vertically and horizontally. A cross of oblique lines, in the shape of the Latin letter X, is also termed a saltire in heraldic terminology.Contents1 Name 2 History2.1 Pre-Christian 2.2 Christian cross3 Cross-like marks and graphemes 4 Cross-like emblems 5 Notable formations known as "cross" 6 Physical gestures 7 See also 8 References8.1 Notes 8.2 Sources9 External linksName[edit] The word cross is recorded in 10th-century Old English
Old English
as cros, exclusively for the instrument of Christ's crucifixion, replacing the native Old English
Old English
word rood. The word's history is complicated; it appears to have entered English from Old Irish, possibly via Old Norse, ultimately from the Latin crux (or its accusative crucem and its genitive crucis), "stake, cross"
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Christian Cross
The Christian cross, seen as a representation of the instrument of the crucifixion of Jesus, is the best-known symbol of Christianity.[1] It is related to the crucifix (a cross that includes a usually three-dimensional representation of Jesus' body) and to the more general family of cross symbols. The basic forms of the cross are the Latin cross
Latin cross
(✝) and the Greek cross (✚), with numerous variants used in text, visual art, heraldry, and in various confessional contexts.Contents1 History of use1.1 Pre-Christian 1.2 Instrument of execution 1.3 Early Christian2 In contemporary Christianity 3 Exclusion 4 Notable individual crosses 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory of use[edit] Pre-Christian[edit] Main article: CrossThis section may stray from the topic of the article. Please help improve this section or discuss this issue on the talk page
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Tally Marks
Tally marks, also called hash marks, are a unary numeral system. They are a form of numeral used for counting. They are most useful in counting or tallying ongoing results, such as the score in a game or sport, as no intermediate results need to be erased or discarded. However, because of the length of large numbers, tallies are not commonly used for static text
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Classical Element
Classical elements typically refer to the concepts in ancient Greece of earth, water, air, fire, and aether, which were proposed to explain the nature and complexity of all matter in terms of simpler substances.[1][2] Ancient cultures in Egypt, Babylonia, Japan, Tibet, and India had similar lists, sometimes referring in local languages to "air" as "wind" and the fifth element as "void". The Chinese Wu Xing system lists Wood (木 mù), Fire (火 huǒ), Earth (土 tǔ), Metal (金 jīn), and Water (水 shuǐ), though these are described more as energies or transitions rather than as types of material. These different cultures and even individual philosophers had widely varying explanations concerning their attributes and how they related to observable phenomena as well as cosmology. Sometimes these theories overlapped with mythology and were personified in deities
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Cardinal Directions
The four cardinal directions or cardinal points are the directions north, east, south, and west, commonly denoted by their initials N, E, S, and W. East
East
and west are at right angles to north and south, with east being in the clockwise direction of rotation from north and west being directly opposite east. Points between the cardinal directions form the points of the compass. The intermediate (intercardinal or ordinal) directions are northeast (NE), southeast (SE), southwest (SW), and northwest (NW)
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Axis Mundi
The axis mundi (also cosmic axis, world axis, world pillar, center of the world, world tree), in certain beliefs and philosophies, is the world center, or the connection between Heaven
Heaven
and Earth. As the celestial pole and geographic pole, it expresses a point of connection between sky and earth where the four compass directions meet. At this point travel and correspondence is made between higher and lower realms.[1] Communication from lower realms may ascend to higher ones and blessings from higher realms may descend to lower ones and be disseminated to all.[2] The spot functions as the omphalos (navel), the world's point of beginning.[3][4][5] The image relates to the center of the earth (perhaps like an umbilical providing nourishment)[citation needed]
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World
The world is the planet Earth
Earth
and all life upon it, including human civilization.[1] In a philosophical context, the "world" is the whole of the physical Universe, or an ontological world (the "world" of an individual). In a theological context, the world is the material or the profane sphere, as opposed to the celestial, spiritual, transcendent or sacred. The "end of the world" refers to scenarios of the final end of human history, often in religious contexts. History of the world
History of the world
is commonly understood as spanning the major geopolitical developments of about five millennia, from the first civilizations to the present
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Comparative Mythology
Comparative mythology
Comparative mythology
is the comparison of myths from different cultures in an attempt to identify shared themes and characteristics.[1] Comparative mythology
Comparative mythology
has served a variety of academic purposes
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Christian Mythology
Christian mythology
Christian mythology
is the body of myths associated with Christianity. The term encompasses a broad variety of stories and legends. Various authors have used it to refer to the mythological and allegorical elements found in the Bible, such as the story of the Leviathan. The term has been applied[by whom?] to myths and legends from the Middle Ages, such as the story of Saint
Saint
George and the Dragon, the stories of King Arthur
King Arthur
and his Knights of the Round Table, and the legends of the Parsival. Multiple commentators have classified John Milton's epic poem Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
as a work of "Christian mythology". The term has also been applied to modern stories revolving around Christian themes and motifs, such as the writings of C. S. Lewis, J. R. R
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Religious Cosmology
A religious cosmology (also mythological cosmology) is a way of explaining the origin, the history and the evolution of the cosmos or universe based on the religious mythology of a specific tradition. Religious cosmologies usually include an act or process of creation by a creator deity or a larger pantheon.Contents1 Indian1.1 Buddhism 1.2 Hindu 1.3 Jain2 Chinese 3 Abrahamic3.1 Ex nihilo 3.2 Genesis Creation Narrative 3.3 Islam 3.4 Mormon4 See also 5 References 6 BibliographyIndian[edit] Buddhism[edit] Main article: Buddhist cosmology In Buddhism, like other Indian religions, there is no ultimate beginning nor final end to the universe. It considers all existence as eternal, and believes there is no creator god.[1][2] Buddhism
Buddhism
views the universe as impermanent and always in flux
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Archaic Cuneiform
Cuneiform
Cuneiform
script,[a] one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.[3] It is distinguished by its wedge-shaped marks on clay tablets, made by means of a blunt reed for a stylus. The name cuneiform itself simply means "wedge shaped".[4][5] Emerging in Sumer
Sumer
in the late fourth millennium BC (the Uruk
Uruk
IV period) to convey the Sumerian language, which was a language isolate , cuneiform writing began as a system of pictograms, stemming from an earlier system of shaped tokens used for accounting. In the third millennium, the pictorial representations became simplified and more abstract as the number of characters in use grew smaller (Hittite cuneiform)
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European Bronze Age
Diffusion of metallurgy in Europe.Generalized distribution of the Beaker culture
Beaker culture
in the Early Bronze Age.A simplified map of archaeological cultures of the Middle Bronze
Bronze
Age (c. 1500-1400 BC). Blue : Apennine culture, Yellow : Terramare culture, Brown : Tumulus
Tumulus
culture, Red : Atlantic Bronze
Bronze
Age, Green : Nordic Bronze
Bronze
Age, Apple green : Cultures of Unetice tradition, Gray : Balkan cultures.Europe in the Late Bronze
Bronze
Age.The European Bronze Age
Bronze Age
is characterized by bronze artifacts and the use of bronze implements. The regional Bronze Age
Bronze Age
succeeds the Neolithic
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Prehistoric Religion
Anthropology Comparative religion Development Neurotheology / God
God
gene Origins PsychologyPrehistoric Ancient Near East  · Ancient Egypt  · Semitic Indo-European  · Vedic Hinduism  · Greco-Roman  · Celtic  · Germanic Axial Age  · Vedanta
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Number Symbol
؋ ​₳ ​ ฿ ​₿ ​ ₵ ​¢ ​₡ ​₢ ​ $ ​₫ ​₯ ​֏ ​ ₠ ​€ ​ ƒ ​₣ ​ ₲ ​ ₴ ​ ₭ ​ ₺ ​₾ ​ ₼ ​ℳ ​₥ ​ ₦ ​ ₧ ​₱ ​₰ ​£ ​ 元 圆 圓 ​﷼ ​៛ ​₽ ​₹ ₨ ​ ₪ ​ ৳ ​₸ ​₮ ​ ₩ ​ ¥ 円Uncommon typographyasterism ⁂fleuron, hedera ❧index, fist ☞interrobang ‽irony punctuation ⸮lozenge ◊tie ⁀RelatedDiacritics Logic symbolsWhitespace charactersIn other scriptsChinese Hebrew Japanese Korean Category Portal Bookv t eThe symbol # is most commonly known as the number sign,[1] hash,[2] or pound sign.[3] The symbol has historically been used for a wide range of purposes, including the designation of an ordinal number and as a ligatured abbreviation for pounds avoirdupois (having been derived from the now-rare ℔).[4] Since 2007, the usage of the sym
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Ankh
The ankh (/æŋk, ɑːŋk/; Egyptian ˁnḫ), also known as crux ansata (the Latin for "cross with a handle") is an ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic ideograph symbolizing "life". The Egyptian gods
Egyptian gods
are often portrayed carrying it by its loop, or bearing one in each hand, arms crossed over their chest
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Roman Numerals
The numeric system represented by Roman numerals
Roman numerals
originated in ancient Rome
Rome
and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin
Latin
alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, are based on seven symbols:[1]Symbol I V X L C D MValue 1 5 10 50 100 500 1,000The use of Roman numerals
Roman numerals
continued long after the decline of the Roman Empire
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