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Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Russo-Japanese War First World War Finnish Civil War Second World WarWinter War Continuation War Lapland War Baron
Baron
Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
(Swedish pronunciation: [kɑːɭ ²ɡɵˌstav ˈeːmɪl ²manːɛrˌheɪm]; 4 June 1867 – 27 January 1951) was a Finnish military leader and statesman.[1] Mannerheim served as the military leader of the Whites in the Finnish Civil War, Regent
Regent
of Finland (1918–1919), commander-in-chief of Finland's defence forces during World War II, Marshal of Finland, and the sixth president of Finland (1944–1946). Mannerheim made a career in the Imperial Russian Army, rising to the rank of lieutenant general. He also had a prominent place in the ceremonies for Tsar Nicholas II's coronation and later had several private meetings with the Russian Tsar
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German Empire
The German Empire
German Empire
(German: Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),[5][6][7][8] also known as Imperial Germany,[9] was the German nation state[10] that existed from the unification of Germany
Germany
in 1871 until the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II
Kaiser Wilhelm II
in 1918. It was founded in 1871 when the south German states, except for Austria, joined the North German Confederation. On 1 January 1871, the new constitution came into force that changed the name of the federal state and introduced the title of emperor for Wilhelm I, King of Prussia
Prussia
from the House of Hohenzollern.[11] Berlin
Berlin
remained its capital, and Otto, Prince of Bismarck remained Chancellor, the head of government
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Grand Duchy Of Finland
The Grand Duchy of Finland
Finland
(Finnish: Suomen suuriruhtinaskunta, Swedish: Storfurstendömet Finland, Russian: Великое княжество Финляндское, Velikoye knyazhestvo Finlyandskoye; literally "Grand Principality of Finland") was the predecessor state of modern Finland
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Senate Of Finland
The Senate of Finland
Finland
(Finnish: Suomen senaatti) combined the functions of cabinet and supreme court in the Grand Duchy of Finland from 1816 to 1917 and in the independent Republic of Finland
Finland
from 1917 to 1918. The body that would become the Senate was established in 1809, when the Diet of Porvoo
Diet of Porvoo
was requested to, and drew up regulations for a Government Council.[1] In 1816, this institution was renamed the Senate by the tsar, to demonstrate that it was equal to, rather than subsidiary to its Russian equivalent.[2] The Senate was headed by the Governor-General of Finland. The members of the Senate had to be Finnish citizens.[1] The Senate was divided into the economic division and the judicial division. In 1822 both divisions were given a Finnish vice-chairman. From 1858 and onwards the members of the senate were formally known as senators
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Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic
The Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic, more commonly referred to as Red Finland, was a theoretical precursor of an unrecognized Finnish socialist state. It was outlined during the Finnish Civil War, on 29 January 1918 by the Finnish People's Delegation, the Reds and Red Guards of the Finnish Social Democratic Party, after the socialist revolution in Finland
Finland
on 26 January 1918. The name "Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic" (Suomen sosialistinen työväentasavalta) appeared only in the Treaty between Finnish People's Delegation and Russian Council of People's Commissars, signed 1 March 1918. The People's Delegation had earlier used the name Republic of Finland
Finland
(Suomen tasavalta), but Soviet leader V. I. Lenin proposed adding the attributes "Socialist Workers' Republic" into the name during negotiations
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World War II
Pacific WarChina Pacific Ocean South-East Asia South West Pacific Japan Manchuria & North Korea Mediterranean and Middle EastNorth Africa East Africa Mediterranean Sea Adriatic Malta Yugoslavia Iraq Syria–Lebanon Iran Italy Dodecanese Southern France Other campaignsAtlantic Arctic Strategic bombing Americas French West Africa Indian Ocean Madagascar Contemporaneous warsSoviet–Japanese border conflicts Franco-Thai War Ecuadorian–Peruvian War Ili Rebellion World War II Alphabetical indices A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 0–9Navigation CampaignsCountriesEquipment TimelineOutlineLists PortalCategoryBibliography vte World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis
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Commander-in-Chief
A commander-in-chief, also called supreme commander, is the person that exercises supreme command and control over an armed forces or a military branch. As a technical term, it refers to military competencies that reside in a country's executive leadership – a head of state or a head of government. Often, a commander-in-chief role if held by an official, need not be or have been a commissioned officer or even a veteran
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Second World War
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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First World War
Allied victoryCentral Powers' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front Fall of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
and foundation of the Soviet Union Formation of new countries in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East Transfer of German colonies
German colonies
and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers Establishment of the League of Nations
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Russo-Japanese War
1,200,000 (total)[1]650,000 (peak)1,365,000 (total)[1]700,000 (peak)Casualties and losses47,152–47,400 killed 11,424–11,500 died of wounds 21,802–27,200 died of diseaseTotal: 58,000–86,100[2][3]34,000–52,623 killed or died of wounds 9,300–18,830 died of disease 146,032 wounded 74,369 capturedTotal: 43,300–120,000[2][3]v t eRusso-Japanese WarNaval battles1st Port Arthur Chemulpo Bay Hitachi Maru convoy Yellow Sea Ulsan Korsakov TsushimaLand battlesYalu River Nanshan Te-li-Ssu Motien Pass Tashihchiao 2nd Port Arthur Hsimucheng Liaoyang Shaho Sandepu Mukden Sakhalinv t eJapanese colonial campaignsMeiji period Korea
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Field Marshal (Finland)
Marshal
Marshal
is a term used in several official titles in various branches of society. As marshals became trusted members of the courts of Medieval Europe, the title grew in reputation. During the last few centuries, it has been used for elevated offices, such as in military rank and civilian law enforcement.Contents1 Etymology 2 Military2.1 Marshal
Marshal
ranks by country 2.2 Marshal
Marshal
equivalents 2.3 Military police3 Ceremonial and protocol 4 Civilian 5 Political5.1 Dignitaries of Poland 5.2 Demonstration marshal6 Sports6.1 Racing and other competitions7 Games 8 Law enforcement 9 United States9.1 Federal marshals 9.2 State and local marshals10 United Kingdom10.1 England 10.2 Scotland11 France 12 Netherlands 13 See also 14 ReferencesEtymology[edit] "Marshal" is an ancient loanword from Old (Norman) French (cf
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Lieutenant General
Lieutenant
Lieutenant
general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt. Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages, where the title of lieutenant general was held by the second in command on the battlefield, who was normally subordinate to a captain general. In modern armies, lieutenant general normally ranks immediately below general and above major general; it is equivalent to the navy rank of vice admiral, and in air forces with a separate rank structure, it is equivalent to air marshal
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Imperial Russian Army
The Imperial Russian Army
Imperial Russian Army
(Russian: Ру́сская импера́торская а́рмия) was the land armed force of the Russian Empire, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917
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Military Officer
An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. In its broadest sense, the term "officer" includes non-commissioned officers and warrant officers. However, when used without further detail, the term "officer" almost always refers to commissioned officers, the more senior portion of a force who derive their authority from a commission from the head of state of a sovereign nation-state.Contents1 Numbers 2 Legal relevance 3 Terminological details in the U.S. 4 Commissioned officers4.1 United Kingdom 4.2 United States4.2.1 Other U.S. officer commissioning programs, active and discontinued4.3 Commonwealth of Nations5 Non-commissioned officers 6 Warrant officers 7 Officer ranks and accommodation 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksNumbers[edit]An Indonesian army
Indonesian army
officer serving as a ceremonial field commanderThe proportion of officers varies greatly
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Switzerland
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state situated in the confluence of western, central, and southern Europe.[9][note 4] It is a federal republic composed of 26 cantons, with federal authorities seated in Bern.[1][2][note 1] Switzerland
Switzerland
is a landlocked country bordered by Italy
Italy
to the south, France
France
to the west, Germany
Germany
to the north, and Austria
Austria
and Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
to the east. It is geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau
Swiss Plateau
and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2 (15,940 sq mi), and land area of 39,997 km2 (15,443 sq mi)
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Russian Empire
The Russian Empire[a] was an empire that extended across Eurasia
Eurasia
and North America
North America
from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution
February Revolution
of 1917.[4] The third largest empire in world history, at its greatest extent stretching over three continents, Europe, Asia, and North America, the Russian Empire
Empire
was surpassed in size only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire
Empire
coincided with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Persia and the Ottoman Empire
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