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Carioca
Carioca (Portuguese pronunciation: [kaɾiˈɔkɐ] ( listen) or [kɐɾiˈɔkɐ]) is a demonym used to refer to anything related to the City of Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
as well as its eponymous State of Rio de Janeiro, in Brazil. The original word, "kara'i oka", comes from the indigenous Tupi language
Tupi language
meaning "house of carijó", which was a native tribe of Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
who lived in the vicinity of the Carioca River, between the neighborhoods of Glória and Flamengo. Like other Brazilians, cariocas speak Portuguese. The carioca accent and sociolect (also simply called "carioca", see below) are the most widely recognized in Brazil, in part because Rede Globo, the second-largest television network in the world, is headquartered in Rio de Janeiro
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Rhotic Consonant
In phonetics, rhotic consonants, or "R-like" sounds, are liquid consonants that are traditionally represented orthographically by symbols derived from the Greek letter rho, including ⟨R⟩, ⟨r⟩ in the Latin script
Latin script
and ⟨Р⟩, ⟨p⟩ in the Cyrillic script
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Florianopolitan Dialect
Florianopolitan dialect, pejoratively called manezês or manezinho,[1] is a variety of Brazilian Portuguese
Brazilian Portuguese
heavily influenced by (and often considered an extension of) the Azorean dialect.[2][3][4] It is spoken by inhabitants of Florianópolis
Florianópolis
(the capital of Santa Catarina state) of full or predominant Azorean descent.[5][6] and in cities near the capital but with slight variations.[7] The dialect was originally brought by immigrants from Azores who founded several settlements in the Santa Catarina island from the 18th century onwards
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Syllable Coda
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. For example, the word water is composed of two syllables: wa and ter. A syllable is typically made up of a syllable nucleus (most often a vowel) with optional initial and final margins (typically, consonants). Syllables are often considered the phonological "building blocks" of words. They can influence the rhythm of a language, its prosody, its poetic meter and its stress patterns. Syllabic writing
Syllabic writing
began several hundred years before the first letters. The earliest recorded syllables are on tablets written around 2800 BC in the Sumerian city of Ur. This shift from pictograms to syllables has been called "the most important advance in the history of writing".[1] A word that consists of a single syllable (like English dog) is called a monosyllable (and is said to be monosyllabic)
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Palato-alveolar Consonant
In phonetics, palato-alveolar (or palatoalveolar) consonants are postalveolar consonants, nearly always sibilants, that are weakly palatalized with a domed (bunched-up) tongue. They are common sounds cross-linguistically and occur in English words such as ship and chip. The fricatives are transcribed ⟨ʃ⟩ (voiceless) and ⟨ʒ⟩ (voiced) in the International Phonetic Alphabet, while the corresponding affricates are ⟨tʃ⟩ (voiceless) and ⟨dʒ⟩ (voiced)
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Voiceless Postalveolar Fricative
Voiceless fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiceless palato-alveolar fricative [ʃ], the voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant fricative [ɹ̠̊˔], the voiceless retroflex fricative [ʂ], and the voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative [ɕ]. This article discusses the first two.Contents1 Voiceless palato-alveolar fricative1.1 Features 1.2 Occurrence2 Voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant fricative2.1 Features 2.2 Occurrence3 See also 4 References 5 Bibliography Voiceless palato-alveolar fricative[edit] Voiceless palato-alveolar fricativeʃIPA number 134EncodingEntity (decimal) ʃUnicode (hex) U+0283X-SAMPA SKirshenbaum SBrailleImageListensource · helpA voiceless palato-alveolar fricative or voiceless domed postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in many languages, including English
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Voiced Postalveolar Fricative
Voiced
Voiced
fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiced palato-alveolar fricative [ʒ], the voiced postalveolar non-sibilant fricative [ɹ̠˔], the voiced retroflex fricative [ʐ], and the voiced alveolo-palatal fricative [ʑ]. This article discusses the first two.Contents1 Voiced
Voiced
palato-alveolar fricative1.1 Features 1.2 Occurrence2 Voiced
Voiced
postalveolar non-sibilant fricative2.1 Features 2.2 Occurrence3 See also 4 References 5 Bibliography Voiced
Voiced
palato-alveolar fricative[edit] Voiced
Voiced
palato-alveolar fricativeʒIPA number 135EncodingEntity (decimal) ʒUnicode (hex) U+0292X-SAMPA ZKirshenbaum ZBrailleImageListensource · helpThe voiced palato-alveolar fricative or voiced domed postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages
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English Phonology
Like many other languages, English has wide variation in pronunciation, both historically and from dialect to dialect. In general, however, the regional dialects of English share a largely similar (but not identical) phonological system. Among other things, most dialects have vowel reduction in unstressed syllables and a complex set of phonological features that distinguish fortis and lenis consonants (stops, affricates, and fricatives)
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Alveolo-palatal Consonant
In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants, sometimes synonymous with pre-palatal consonants, are intermediate in articulation between the coronal and dorsal consonants, or which have simultaneous alveolar and palatal articulation. In the official IPA chart, alveolo-palatals would appear between the retroflex and palatal consonants but for "lack of space".[1] Ladefoged and Maddieson characterize the alveolo-palatals as palatalized postalveolars (palatalized palato-alveolars), articulated with the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge and the body of the tongue raised toward the palate,[2] whereas Esling describes them as advanced palatals (pre-palatals), the furthest front of the dorsal consonants, articulated with the body of the tongue approaching the alveolar ridge.[1] These descriptions are essentially equivalent, since the contact includes both the blade and body (but not the tip) of the tongue (see schematic at right)
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Voiceless Alveolo-palatal Fricative
The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some oral languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
that represents this sound is ⟨ɕ⟩ ("c", plus the curl also found in its voiced counterpart ⟨ʑ⟩). It is the sibilant equivalent of the voiceless palatal fricative. The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant fricative does not occur in any major dialect of English
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Voiced Alveolo-palatal Fricative
The voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʑ⟩ ("z", plus the curl also found in its voiceless counterpart ⟨ɕ⟩), and the equivalent X-SAMPA
X-SAMPA
symbol is z. It is the sibilant equivalent of the voiced palatal fricative. The voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant fricative does not occur in any major dialect of English
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Catalan Phonology
The phonology of Catalan, a Romance language, has a certain degree of dialectal variation. Although there are two standard dialects, one based on Eastern Catalan
Eastern Catalan
and one based on Valencian, this article deals with features of all or most dialects, as well as regional pronunciation differences
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Voiced Glottal Fricative
The breathy-voiced glottal transition, commonly called a voiced glottal fricative, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages which patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
that represents this sound is ⟨ɦ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA
X-SAMPA
symbol is h. In many languages, [ɦ] has no place or manner of articulation. Thus, it has been described as a breathy-voiced counterpart of the following vowel from a phonetic point of view. However, its characteristics are also influenced by the preceding vowels and whatever other sounds surround it
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Vila Velha
Coordinates: 20°20′11″S 40°17′37″W / 20.33639°S 40.29361°W / -20.33639; -40.29361Vila VelhaMunicipalityThe Municipality of Vila Velha Skyline
Skyline
of Vila Velha.FlagSealNickname(s): The Land of the Green Shins (Portuguese: Terra dos Canelas-Verdes)Location in the State of Espírito SantoCountry  BrazilRegion SoutheastState Espírito SantoFounded May 23, 1535Government • Mayor Max Filho (PSDB)Area • Total 208 km2 (80 sq mi)Population (2010) • Total 427,579 • Density 1,906/km2 (4,940/sq mi)Time zone UTC-3
UTC-3
(UTC-3)Postal Code 29100-000Area code(s) +55 27Website Vila Velha, Espírito Santo Vila Velha
Vila Velha
([ˈvilɐ ˈvɛʎɐ]; Portuguese for "Old town") is a coastal town in Espírito Santo, Brazil. It lies across from Vitória, the state capital
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Unvoiced Glottal Fricative
The voiceless glottal fricative, sometimes called voiceless glottal transition, and sometimes called the aspirate,[1][2] is a type of sound used in some spoken languages that patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant
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Voiceless Pharyngeal Fricative
The voiceless pharyngeal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is an h-bar, ⟨ħ⟩. In the transcription of Arabic, Berber and other scripts, it is often written ⟨Ḥ⟩, ⟨ḥ⟩. Typically characterized as a fricative in the upper pharynx, it is often a whispered [h].Contents1 Features 2 Occurrence 3 See also 4 References 5 BibliographyFeatures[edit] Features of the voiceless pharyngeal fricative:Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence. Its place of articulation is pharyngeal, which means it is articulated with the tongue root against the back of the throat (the pharynx). Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords
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