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Cargo Ship
A cargo ship or freighter ship is any sort of ship or vessel that carries cargo, goods, and materials from one port to another. Thousands of cargo carriers ply the world's seas and oceans each year, handling the bulk of international trade. Cargo
Cargo
ships are usually specially designed for the task, often being equipped with cranes and other mechanisms to load and unload, and come in all sizes. Today, they are almost always built by welded steel, and with some exceptions generally have a life expectancy of 25 to 30 years before being scrapped.[citation needed]Contents1 Types 2 History 3 Piracy 4 Definitions 5 Vessel prefixes 6 Famous cargo ships 7 Size categories 8 Pollution 9 See also 10 References 11 External linksTypes[edit]A US cargo ship off McMurdo Station, Antarctica Cargo
Cargo
ships/freighters can be divided into six groups, according to the type of cargo they carry
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Colombo Express
Colombo
Colombo
Express is one of the largest container ships in the world. When launched in 2005, she was claimed by her owner to be the world's largest container ship,[2] a title it held until the Emma Mærsk
Emma Mærsk
was launched in 2006. Colombo
Colombo
Express holds 8,749 twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU), 730 refrigerated (reefer) TEUs, is 1,099 feet (335 m) long, and has a beam, or width, of 140 feet (43 m). She is owned by the German shipping company Hapag-Lloyd, and operated by its Hapag-Lloyd
Hapag-Lloyd
Container Line division. She is named for Colombo, the largest city in Sri Lanka, which the predecessor company, North American Lloyd, first called on in 1886
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Chartering (shipping)
Chartering is an activity within the shipping industry whereby a shipowner hires out the use of his vessel to a charterer. The contract between the parties is called a charterparty (from the French "charte partie", or "parted document"). The three main types of charter are: demise charter, voyage charter, and time charter.Contents1 The charterer 2 Charter types 3 See also 4 References 5 Further readingThe charterer[edit] In some cases a charterer may own cargo and employ a shipbroker to find a ship to deliver the cargo for a certain price, called freight rate. Freight rates may be on a per-ton basis over a certain route (e.g. for iron ore between Brazil and China), in Worldscale points (in case of oil tankers) or alternatively may be expressed in terms of a total sum - normally in U.S
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Malacca Straits
The Strait
Strait
of Malacca
Malacca
(Malay: Selat Melaka, Indonesian: Selat Malaka; Jawi: سلت ملاک) or Straits of Malacca
Malacca
is a narrow, 550 mi (890 km) stretch of water between the Malay Peninsula
Malay Peninsula
(Peninsular Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra.[1] It is named after the Malacca Sultanate
Malacca Sultanate
that ruled over the archipelago between 1400 and 1511.Contents1 Extent 2 Economic importance 3 Shipping hazards 4 Proposals to relieve the strait 5 History 6 See also 7 Further reading 8 References 9 External linksExtent[edit] The International Hydrographic Organization
International Hydrographic Organization
defines the limits of the Strait
Strait
of Malacca
Malacca
as follows:[2]On the West
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Indonesia
Coordinates: 5°S 120°E / 5°S 120°E / -5; 120 Republic
Republic
of Indonesia Republik Indonesia  (Indonesian)FlagNational emblemMotto:  Bhinneka Tunggal Ika
Bhinneka Tunggal

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Singapore
Singapore (/ˈsɪŋ(ɡ)əpɔːr/ ( listen)), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia. It lies one degree (137 kilometres or 85 miles) north of the equator, at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, with Indonesia's Riau Islands to the south and Peninsular Malaysia to the north. Singapore's territory consists of one main island along with 62 other islets. Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its total size by 23% (130 square kilometres or 50 square miles). Stamford Raffles founded colonial Singapore in 1819 as a trading post of the British East India Company; after the latter's collapse in 1858, the islands were ceded to the British Raj as a crown colony. During the Second World War, Singapore was occupied by Japan
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Malaysia
Coordinates: 2°30′N 112°30′E / 2.500°N 112.500°E / 2.500; 112.500MalaysiaFlagCoat of armsMotto: "Bersekutu Bertambah Mutu"[1] "Unity Is Strength"Anthem: Negaraku My CountryCapital Kuala Lumpur 3°8′N 101°41′E / 3.133°N 101.683°E / 3.133; 101.683 Putrajaya
Putrajaya
(administrative) 2°56′35″N 101°41′58″E / 2.9430952°N 101.699373°E / 2.9430952; 101.699373Largest city Kuala Lumpur 3°8′N 101°41′E / 3.133°N 101.683°E / 3.133; 101.683Official languages Malay[2]Official script MalayRecognis
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Somalia
Coordinates: 10°N 49°E / 10°N 49°E / 10; 49Federal Republic
Republic
of Somalia[1] Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya (Somali) جمهورية الصومال الفيدرالية (Arabic) Jumhūrīyat aṣ-Ṣūmāl al-FidirālīyahFlagCoat of armsAnthem: Qolobaa CalankeedLocation of Somalia.Capital and largest city Mogadishu 2°2′N 45°21′E / 2.033°N 45.350°E / 2.033; 45.350Official languagesSomali Arabic[2]Religion IslamDemonym Somali[3]Government Federal parliamentary republic• PresidentMohamed Abdullahi Mohamed• Prime MinisterHassan Ali KhayreLegislature Federal ParliamentFormation• Somali city-statesc
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Nigeria
The Federal Republic
Republic
of Nigeria, commonly referred to as Nigeria (/naɪˈdʒɪəriə/ ( listen)), is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin
Benin
in the west, Chad
Chad
and Cameroon
Cameroon
in the east, and Niger
Niger
in the north. Its coast in the south lies on the Gulf of Guinea
Guinea
in the Atlantic Ocean. It comprises 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja
Abuja
is located. Nigeria
Nigeria
is officially a democratic secular country.[6] Nigeria
Nigeria
has been home to a number of kingdoms and tribal states over the millennia
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South America
South America
South America
is a continent located in the western hemisphere, mostly in the southern hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the northern hemisphere. It may also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas,[3][4] which is how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas. The reference to South America instead of other regions (like Latin America
Latin America
or the Southern Cone) has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics (in particular, the rise of Brazil).[5] It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and on the north and east by the Atlantic
Atlantic
Ocean; North America
North America
and the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
lie to the northwest
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Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
Asia
or Southeastern Asia
Asia
is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea
New Guinea
and north of Australia.[4] Southeast Asia
Asia
is bordered to the north by East Asia, to the west by South Asia
Asia
and Bay of Bengal, to the east by Oceania
Oceania
and Pacific Ocean, and to the south by Australia
Australia
and Indian Ocean. The region is the only part of Asia that lies partly within the Southern Hemisphere, although the majority of it is in the Northern Hemisphere
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Caribbean Sea
The Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea
Sea
(Spanish: Mar Caribe; French: Mer des Caraïbes; Dutch: Caraïbische Zee) is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere. It is bounded by Mexico
Mexico
and Central America to the west and south west, to the north by the Greater Antilles starting with Cuba, to the east by the Lesser Antilles, and to the south by the north coast of South America. The entire area of the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea, the numerous islands of the West Indies, and adjacent coasts, are collectively known as the Caribbean. The Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea
Sea
is one of the largest seas and has an area of about 2,754,000 km2 (1,063,000 sq mi).[1][2] The sea's deepest point is the Cayman Trough, between the Cayman Islands and Jamaica, at 7,686 m (25,217 ft) below sea level
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Charter Party
The Charter Party or Charter Committee is a minor political party, the third party of Cincinnati, Ohio, United States. Members of this party are called "Charterites." Party organizers prefer the term "Charter Committee" rather than "Charter Party." Because of Ohio State laws regarding vote percentage cutoffs for official party recognition, the Charter Party is not an officially recognized political party in Ohio.[1]Contents1 History 2 Platform 3 Prominent historical Charterites 4 Prominent ex-Charterites 5 Current Charterites 6 ReferencesHistory[edit] The Charter Party claims to be "the oldest third party in the nation that has continually elected officials to office".[2] It was founded in 1924, during a time when Cincinnati government was under the control of the Republican Party
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Manila Galleon
Neolithic
Neolithic
ageCallao and Tabon peoples Arrival of the Negritos Austronesian expansion Angono Petroglyphs Lal-lo and Gattaran Shell Middens Jade cultureIron ageSa Huyun Culture Society of the Igorot Ancient barangaysEvents/ArtifactsBalangay grave goods Manunggul Jar Prehistoric gems Sa Huyun-Kalanay Complex Maitum Anthropomorphic PotteryArchaic epoch (900–1565) Historically documented city-states/polities (by geography from North to South)Samtoy chieftaincy Caboloan Tondo Namayan Rajahnate of Maynila Ma-i Madja-as Chiefdom of Taytay Rajahnate of Cebu Kedatuan of Dapitan Rajahnat
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Shipping Line
A shipping line is a business that transports cargo aboard ships. History of shipping lines[edit] Large-scale shipping lines became widespread in the nineteenth century, after the development of the steamship in 1783
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Diesel Engine
The diesel engine (also known as a compression-ignition or CI engine), named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel which is injected into the combustion chamber is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to mechanical compression (adiabatic compression). Diesel engines work by compressing only the air. This increases the air temperature inside the cylinder to such a high degree that atomised diesel fuel that is injected into the combustion chamber ignites spontaneously. This contrasts with spark-ignition engines such as a petrol engine (gasoline engine) or gas engine (using a gaseous fuel as opposed to petrol), which use a spark plug to ignite an air-fuel mixture. In diesel engines, glow plugs (combustion chamber pre-warmers) may be used to aid starting in cold weather, or when the engine uses a lower compression-ratio, or both
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