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Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
(CPR) is an emergency procedure that combines chest compressions often with artificial ventilation in an effort to manually preserve intact brain function until further measures are taken to restore spontaneous blood circulation and breathing in a person who is in cardiac arrest. It is recommended in those who are unresponsive with no breathing or abnormal breathing, for example, agonal respirations.[1] CPR involves chest compressions for adults between 5 cm (2.0 in) and 6 cm (2.4 in) deep and at a rate of at least 100 to 120 per minute.[2] The rescuer may also provide artificial ventilation by either exhaling air into the subject's mouth or nose (mouth-to-mouth resuscitation) or using a device that pushes air into the subject's lungs (mechanical ventilation)
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CPR (other)
CPR, or cardiopulmonary resuscitation, is an emergency procedure to assist someone who has suffered cardiac arrest. CPR
CPR
may also refer to:Contents1 Science and technology 2 Organizations 3 Transportation 4 Radio and music 5 Other uses 6 See alsoScience and technology[edit]Classification of Pharmaco-Therapeutic Referrals, a taxonomy to define situations requiring a referral from pharmacists to physicians Continuous Plankton Recorder, marine biological monitoring program Cubase Project Files, work files used in Steinberg Cubase Cytochrome P450 reductase, an enzyme Cursor Position Report, an ANSI X3.
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Brain Damage
Brain damage or brain injury (BI) is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells. Brain injuries occur due to a wide range of internal and external factors
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Laryngeal Mask Airway
A laryngeal mask airway (LMA) — also known as laryngeal mask— is a medical device that keeps a patient's airway open during anaesthesia or unconsciousness. It is a type of supraglottic airway. A laryngeal mask is composed of an airway tube that connects to an elliptical mask with a cuff which is inserted through the patient's mouth, down the windpipe, and once deployed forms an airtight seal on top the glottis (unlike tracheal tubes which pass through the glottis) allowing a secure airway to be managed by a health care provider. They are most commonly used by anaesthetists to channel oxygen or anaesthesia gas to a patient's lungs during surgery and in the pre-hospital setting (for instance by paramedics and emergency medical technicians) for unconscious patients. The laryngeal mask was invented by British anaesthesiologist/anaesthetist Archibald Brain in the early 1980s and in December 1987 the first commercial laryngeal mask was made available in the United Kingdom
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Endotracheal Tube
A - endotracheal tube (blue) B - cuff inflation tube with pilot balloon C - trachea D - esophagusICD-9-CM 96.04[edit on Wikidata]A tracheal tube is a catheter that is inserted into the trachea for the primary purpose of establishing and maintaining a patent airway and to ensure the adequate exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Many different types of tracheal tubes are available, suited for different specific applications:An endotracheal tube is a specific type of tracheal tube that is nearly always inserted through the mouth (orotracheal) or nose (nasotracheal). A tracheostomy tube is another type of tracheal tube; this 2–3-inch-long (51–76 mm) curved metal or plastic tube may be inserted into a tracheostomy stoma (following a tracheotomy) to maintain a patent lumen. A tracheal button is a rigid plastic cannula about 1 inch in length that can be placed into the tracheostomy after removal of a tracheostomy tube to maintain patency of the lume
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Newborns
An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human. The term may also be used to refer to juveniles of other organisms. A newborn is, in colloquial use, an infant who is only hours, days, or up to one month old. In medical contexts, newborn or neonate (from Latin, neonatus, newborn) refers to an infant in the first 28 days after birth;[1] the term applies to premature, full term, and postmature infants; before birth, the term "fetus" is used. The term "infant" is typically applied to young children between one month and one year of age; however, definitions may vary and may include children up to two years of age. When a human child learns to walk, the term "toddler" may be used instead. In British English, an infant school is for children aged between four and seven
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Anterior
Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans. All vertebrates (including humans) have the same basic body plan – they are strictly bilaterally symmetrical in early embryonic stages and largely bilaterally symmetrical in adulthood.[1] That is, they have mirror-image left and right halves if divided down the centre.[2] For these reasons, the basic directional terms can be considered to be those used in vertebrates. By extension, the same terms are used for many other (invertebrate) organisms as well. While these terms are standardized within specific fields of biology, there are unavoidable, sometimes dramatic, differences between some disciplines
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Iatrogenesis
Iatrogenesis
Iatrogenesis
(from the Greek for "brought forth by the healer") refers to any effect on a person, resulting from any activity of one or more persons acting as healthcare professionals or promoting products or services as beneficial to health, that does not support a goal of the person affected.[1][2][3][4][5][6] Some iatrogenic effects are clearly defined and easily recognized, such as a complication following a surgical procedure (e.g., lymphedema as a result of breast cancer surgery)
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Pulmonary
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails. In mammals and most other vertebrates, two lungs are located near the backbone on either side of the heart. Their function in the respiratory system is to extract oxygen from the atmosphere and transfer it into the bloodstream, and to release carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere, in a process of gas exchange. Respiration is driven by different muscular systems in different species. Mammals, reptiles and birds use their different muscles to support and foster breathing. In early tetrapods, air was driven into the lungs by the pharyngeal muscles via buccal pumping, a mechanism still seen in amphibians. In humans, the main muscle of respiration that drives breathing is the diaphragm. The lungs also provide airflow that makes vocal sounds including human speech possible. Humans have two lungs, a right lung and a left lung
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Abdominal Viscus
Organs are collections of tissues with a similar function. Plant
Plant
and animal life relies on many organs that coexist in organ systems.[2] Organs are composed of main tissue, parenchyma, and "sporadic" tissues, stroma. The main tissue is that which is unique for the specific organ, such as the myocardium, the main tissue of the heart, while sporadic tissues include the nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissues. The main tissues that make up an organ tend to have common embryologic origins, such as arising from the same germ layer. Functionally related organs often cooperate to form whole organ systems. Organs exist in all organisms. In single-celled organisms such as bacteria the functional analogue of an organ is known as an organelle
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Upper Respiratory Tract
In humans, the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration. Air is breathed in through the nose or the mouth. In the nasal cavity, a layer of mucous membrane acts as a filter and traps pollutants and other harmful substances found in the air. Next, air moves into the pharynx, a passage that contains the intersection between the esophagus and the larynx. The opening of the larynx has a special flap of cartilage, the epiglottis, that opens to allow air to pass through but closes to prevent food from moving into the airway. From the larynx, air moves into the trachea and down to the intersection that branches to form the right and left primary (main) bronchi
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Hemopericardium
Hemopericardium
Hemopericardium
refers to blood in the pericardial sac of the heart. It is clinically similar to a pericardial effusion, and, depending on the volume and rapidity with which it develops, may cause cardiac tamponade.[1] The condition can be caused by full-thickness necrosis (death) of the myocardium (heart muscle) after myocardial infarction, chest trauma,[2] and by over-prescription of anticoagulants.[3][4] Other causes include ruptured aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva and other aneurysms of the aortic arch.[5]
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Anterior Mediastinum
The mediastinum (from Medieval Latin
Latin
mediastinus, "midway"[2]) is the central compartment of the thoracic cavity surrounded by loose connective tissue, as an undelineated region that contains a group of structures within the thorax
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Odds Ratio
In statistics, the odds ratio (OR)[1][2][3] is one of three main ways to quantify how strongly the presence or absence of property A is associated with the presence or absence of property B in a given population. If each individual in a population either does or does not have a property "A" (e.g. "high blood pressure"), and also either does or does not have a property "B" (e.g. "moderate alcohol consumption") where both properties are appropriately defined, then a ratio can be formed which quantitatively describes the association between the presence/absence of "A" (high blood pressure) and the presence/absence of "B" (moderate alcohol consumption) for individuals in the population
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Pericardial Tamponade
Cardiac tamponade, also known as pericardial tamponade, is when fluid in the pericardium (the sac around the heart) builds up and results in compression of the heart.[2] Onset may be rapid or more gradual.[2] Symptoms typically include those of cardiogenic shock including shortness of breath, weakness, lightheadedness, and cough.[1] Other symptoms may relate to the underlying cause.[1] Common causes include cancer, kidney failure, chest trauma, and pericarditis.[2] Other causes include connective tissue diseases, hypothyroidism, aortic rupture, and following cardiac surgery.[4] In Africa, tuberculosis is a relatively common cause.[1] Diagnosis may be suspected based on low blood pressure, jugular venous distension, pericardial rub, or quiet heart sounds.[2][1] The diagnosis may be further supported by specific electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, chest X-ray, or an ultrasound of the heart.[2] If fluid increases slowly the pericardial sac can expand to contain more than 2 liters; however, i
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Pneumothorax
A pneumothorax is an abnormal collection of air in the pleural space between the lung and the chest wall.[3] Symptoms typically include sudden onset of sharp, one-sided chest pain and shortness of breath.[2] In a minority of cases the amount of air in the chest increases when a one-way valve is formed by an area of damaged tissue, leading to a tension pneumothorax.[3] This condition can cause a steadily worsening oxygen shortage and low blood pressure.[3] Unless reversed by effective treatment, it can result in death.[3] Very rarely both lungs may be affected by a pneumothorax.[6] It is often called a collapsed lung, although that term may also refer to atelectasis.[1] A primary pneumothorax is one that occurs without an apparent cause and in the absence of significant lung disease, while a secondary pneumothorax occurs in the presence of existing lung disease.[3]
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