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Carbamate
A carbamate is an organic compound derived from carbamic acid (NH2COOH). A carbamate group, carbamate ester (e.g., ethyl carbamate), and carbamic acids are functional groups that are inter-related structurally and often are interconverted chemically. Carbamate
Carbamate
esters are also called urethanes.Contents1 Synthesis 2 Applications and occurrence2.1 In biochemistry2.1.1 CO2 capture by ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase3 Commercial carbamate compounds3.1 Carbamate
Carbamate
insecticides 3.2 Polyurethanes 3.3 Preservatives and cosmetics 3.4 Medicine 3.5 Toxicity4 Sulfur
Sulfur
analogues 5 See also 6 ReferencesSynthesis[edit] Carbamic acids are unstable, but the salts of these elusive acids are well known
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Organic Compound
An organic compound is virtually any chemical compound that contains carbon, although a consensus definition remains elusive and likely arbitrary.[1] However, the traditional definition used by most chemists is limited to compounds containing a carbon-hydrogen bond. Organic compounds are rare terrestrially, but of central importance because all known life is based on organic compounds
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Inosine
Inosine
Inosine
is a nucleoside that is formed when hypoxanthine is attached to a ribose ring (also known as a ribofuranose) via a β-N9-glycosidic bond. Inosine
Inosine
is commonly found in tRNAs and is essential for proper translation of the genetic code in wobble base pairs. Knowledge of inosine metabolism has led to advances in immunotherapy in recent decades. Inosine monophosphate
Inosine monophosphate
is oxidised by the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, yielding xanthosine monophosphate, a key precursor in purine metabolism. Mycophenolate mofetil is an anti-metabolite, anti-proliferative drug that acts as an inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase
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Quaternary Ammonium Cation
Quaternary ammonium cations, also known as quats, are positively charged polyatomic ions of the structure NR+ 4, R being an alkyl group or an aryl group.[1] Unlike the ammonium ion (NH+ 4) and the primary, secondary, or tertiary ammonium cations, the quaternary ammonium cations are permanently charged, independent of the pH of their solution
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Blood-brain Barrier
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).[1] The blood–brain barrier is formed by brain endothelial cells and it allows the passage of water, some gases, and lipid-soluble molecules by passive diffusion, as well as the selective transport of molecules such as glucose and amino acids that are crucial to neural function. Furthermore, it prevents the entry of lipophilic potential neurotoxins by way of an active transport mechanism mediated by P-glycoprotein. Astrocytes
Astrocytes
have been claimed to be necessary to create the blood–brain barrier
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Polymerize
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.[2][3][4] There are many forms of polymerization and different systems exist to categorize them.Contents1 Introduction 2 Step-growth 3 Chain-growth3.1 Physical polymer reaction engineering 3.2 Photopolymerization4 See also 5 ReferencesIntroduction[edit]Homopolymers A + A + A + A . . . → A A A A . . . displaystyle A+A+A+A...rightarrow AAAA... Copolymers A + B + A + B . . . → A B A B . . . displaystyle A+B+A+B...rightarrow ABAB..
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Alcohol (chemistry)
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a saturated carbon atom.[2] The term alcohol originally referred to the primary alcohol ethanol (ethyl alcohol), which is used as a drug and is the main alcohol present in alcoholic beverages. The suffix -ol appears in the IUPAC
IUPAC
chemical name of all substances where the hydroxyl group is the functional group with the highest priority; in substances where a higher priority group is present the prefix hydroxy- will appear in the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemistry
(IUPAC) name. The suffix -ol in non-systematic names (such as paracetamol or cholesterol) also typically indicates that the substance includes a hydroxyl functional group and, so, can be termed an alcohol. But many substances, particularly sugars (examples glucose and sucrose) contain hydroxyl functional groups without using the suffix
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Elastomers
An elastomer is a polymer with viscoelasticity (having both viscosity and elasticity) and very weak inter-molecular forces, generally having low Young's modulus
Young's modulus
and high failure strain compared with other materials.[1] The term, which is derived from elastic polymer,[2] is often used interchangeably with the term rubber, although the latter is preferred when referring to vulcanisates.[3] Each of the monomers which link to form the polymer is usually made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen or silicon. Elastomers are amorphous polymers existing above their glass transition temperature, so that considerable segmental motion is possible. At ambient temperatures, rubbers are thus relatively soft (E ≈ 3 MPa) and deformable. Their primary uses are for seals, adhesives and molded flexible parts. Application areas for different types of rubber are manifold and cover segments as diverse as tires, shoe soles, and damping and insulating elements
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Side Chain
NotesAn oligomeric branch may be termed a short-chain branch. A polymeric branch may be termed a long-chain branch.[1]In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a side chain is a chemical group that is attached to a core part of the molecule called "main chain" or backbone. The side chain is a hydrocarbon branching element of a molecule that is attached to a larger hydrocarbon backbone. It is one factor in determining a molecule's properties and reactivity.[2] A side chain is also known as a pendant chain, but a pendant group (side group) has a different definition.Contents1 Conventions 2 History 3 Usage3.1 Organic chemistry 3.2 Biochemistry4 See also 5 ReferencesConventions[edit] The placeholder R is often used as a generic placeholder for alkyl (saturated hydrocarbon) group side chains in chemical structure diagrams
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Lysine
Lysine
Lysine
(symbol Lys or K),[1] encoded by the codons AAA and AAG, is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. It contains an α-amino group (which is in the protonated −NH3+ form under biological conditions), an α-carboxylic acid group (which is in the deprotonated −COO− form under biological conditions), and a side chain lysyl ((CH2)4NH2), classifying it as a charged (at physiological pH), aliphatic amino acid. It is essential in humans, meaning the body cannot synthesize it and thus it must be obtained from the diet. Lysine
Lysine
is a base, as are arginine and histidine. The ε-amino group often participates in hydrogen bonding and as a general base in catalysis
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Aspartic Acid
Aspartic acid
Aspartic acid
(symbol Asp or D;[3] encoded by the codons [GAU and GAC]), also known as aspartate, is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.[4] Similar to all other amino acids it contains an amino group and a carboxylic acid
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Glutamic Acid
Glutamic acid
Glutamic acid
(symbol Glu or E[4]) is an α-amino acid with formula C 5H 9O 4N. Its molecular structure could be idealized as HOOC-CH(NH 2)-(CH 2)2-COOH, with two carboxyl groups -COOH and one amino group -NH 2. However, in the solid state and mildly acid water solutions, the molecule assumes an electrically neutral zwitterion structure −OOC-CH(NH+ 3)-(CH 2)2-COOH. The acid can lose one proton from its second carboxyl group to form the conjugate base, the singly-negative anion glutamate −OOC-CH(NH+ 3)-(CH 2)2-COO−. This form of the compound is prevalent in neutral solutions. The glutamate neurotransmitter plays the principal role in neural activation.[5] This anion is also responsible for the savory flavor (umami) of certain foods, and used in glutamate flavorings such as MSG. In highly alkaline solutions the doubly negative anion −OOC-CH(NH 2)-(CH 2)2-COO− prevails
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Insect Growth Regulator
Regulator may refer to:Contents1 Technology 2 Science 3 Music and literature 4 People 5 Other 6 See alsoTechnology[edit] Regulator (automatic control), a device that maintains a designated characteristic, as in:Battery regulator Pressure regulator Diving regulator Voltage regulator Regulator (sewer), a control device used in a combined sewer system A device in mechanical watches attached to the balance spring for adjusting the rate of the b
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Calvin Cycle
The light-independent reactions, or dark reactions,[1] of photosynthesis are chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose. These reactions occur in the stroma, the fluid-filled area of a chloroplast outside the thylakoid membranes. These reactions take the products (ATP and NADPH) of light-dependent reactions and perform further chemical processes on them. There are three phases to the light-independent reactions, collectively called the Calvin cycle: carbon fixation, reduction reactions, and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) regeneration. This process occurs only when light is available. Plants do not carry out the Calvin cycle
Calvin cycle
during nighttime. They instead release sucrose into the phloem from their starch reserves
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Magnesium
Magnesium
Magnesium
is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12. It is a shiny gray solid which bears a close physical resemblance to the other five elements in the second column (group 2, or alkaline earth metals) of the periodic table: all group 2 elements have the same electron configuration in the outer electron shell and a similar crystal structure. Magnesium
Magnesium
is the ninth most abundant element in the universe.[4][5] It is produced in large, aging stars from the sequential addition of three helium nuclei to a carbon nucleus. When such stars explode as supernovas, much of the magnesium is expelled into the interstellar medium where it may recycle into new star systems
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Insect Repellent
An insect repellent (also commonly called "bug spray") is a substance applied to skin, clothing, or other surfaces which discourages insects (and arthropods in general) from landing or climbing on that surface. Insect
Insect
repellents help prevent and control the outbreak of insect-borne (and other arthropod-bourne) diseases such as malaria, Lyme disease, dengue fever, bubonic plague, river blindness and West Nile fever. Pest animals commonly serving as vectors for disease include insects such as flea, fly, and mosquito; and the arachnid tick[citation needed]. Some insect repellents are insecticides (bug killers), but most simply discourage insects and send them flying or crawling away
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