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Caracalla
Caracalla
Caracalla
(/ˌkærəˈkælə/; Latin: Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
Severus Antoninus Augustus;[1] 4 April 188 – 8 April 217), formally known as Antoninus, was a Roman emperor
Roman emperor
from AD 198 to 217. A member of the Severan Dynasty, he was the eldest son of Septimius Severus
Septimius Severus
and Julia Domna. Caracalla
Caracalla
reigned jointly with his father from 198 until Severus' death in 211. Caracalla
Caracalla
then ruled jointly with his younger brother Geta, with whom he had a fraught relationship, until he had Geta murdered later that year
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Louis XVI Of France
Louis XVI (French pronunciation: ​[lwi sɛːz]; 23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793), born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution. He was referred to as Citizen Louis Capet during the final weeks of his life. In 1765, at the death of his father, Louis, son and heir apparent of Louis XV, Louis-Auguste became the new Dauphin of France. Upon his grandfather's death on 10 May 1774, he assumed the title "King of France
France
and Navarre", which he used until 4 September 1791, when he received the title of "King of the French" until the monarchy was abolished on 21 September 1792. Louis XVI was guillotined on 21 January 1793. The first part of his reign was marked by attempts to reform France
France
in accordance with Enlightenment ideas. These included efforts to abolish serfdom, remove the taille, and increase tolerance toward non-Catholics
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York
York
York
(/ˈjɔːrk/ ( listen)) is a historic walled city at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England. The municipality is the traditional county town of the historic county of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
to which it gives its name. The city has a rich heritage and has provided the backdrop to major political events in England throughout much of its two millennia of existence. The city offers a wealth of historic attractions, of which York Minster is the most prominent, and a variety of cultural and sporting activities making it a popular tourist destination. The city was founded by the Romans as Eboracum
Eboracum
in 71 AD. It became the capital of the Roman province
Roman province
of Britannia Inferior, and later of the kingdoms of Northumbria
Northumbria
and Jórvík
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Dio Cassius
Cassius Dio or Dio Cassius[note 2] (/ˈkæʃəs ˈdiːoʊ/; c. 155–235)[note 3] was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek origin. He published 80 volumes of history on Ancient Rome, beginning with the arrival of Aeneas
Aeneas
in Italy. The volumes documented the subsequent founding of Rome (753 BC), the formation of the Republic (509 BC), and the creation of the Empire (31 BC), up until 229 AD. Written in Ancient Greek over 22 years, Dio's work covers approximately 1,000 years of history. Many of his 80 books have survived intact, or as fragments, providing modern scholars with a detailed perspective on Roman history.Contents1 Biography 2 Roman History 3 Literary style 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksBiography[edit] Lucius Cassius Dio was the son of Cassius Apronianus, a Roman senator, who was born and raised at Nicaea
Nicaea
in Bithynia
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Aurelius Victor
Sextus Aurelius Victor (c. 320 – c. 390) was a historian and politician of the Roman Empire. Aurelius Victor was the author of a short history of imperial Rome, entitled De Caesaribus and covering the period from Augustus
Augustus
to Constantius II. The work was published in 361
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Agnomen
An agnomen (Latin: [aŋˈnoːmen]; plural: agnomina), in the Roman naming convention, was a nickname, just as the cognomen was initially
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Praenomen
The praenomen (Classical Latin: [ˈprae̯:.noː.mɛn]; plural: praenomina) was a personal name chosen by the parents of a Roman child. It was first bestowed on the dies lustricus (day of lustration), the eighth day after the birth of a girl, or the ninth day after the birth of a boy. The praenomen would then be formally conferred a second time when girls married, or when boys assumed the toga virilis upon reaching manhood. Although it was the oldest of the tria nomina commonly used in Roman naming conventions, by the late republic, most praenomina were so common that most people were called by their praenomina only by family or close friends. For this reason, although they continued to be used, praenomina gradually disappeared from public records during imperial times
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Gaul
Gaul
Gaul
(Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe
Western Europe
during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Germany
Germany
on the west bank of the Rhine. It covered an area of 494,000 km2 (191,000 sq mi).[1] According to the testimony of Julius Caesar, Gaul
Gaul
was divided into three parts: Gallia Celtica, Belgica and Aquitania
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Augustus (honorific)
Augustus
Augustus
(plural augusti; /ɔːˈɡʌstəs/;[1]Classical Latin: [awˈɡʊstʊs], Latin
Latin
for "majestic", "the increaser" or "venerable"), was an ancient Roman title given as both name and title to Gaius Octavius (often referred to simply as Augustus), Rome's first Emperor. On his death, it became an official title of his successor, and was so used by Roman emperors thereafter. The feminine form Augusta was used for Roman empresses and other females of the Imperial family. The masculine and feminine forms originated in the time of the Roman Republic, in connection with things considered divine or sacred in traditional Roman religion
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Latin Language
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Crisis Of The Third Century
The Crisis of the Third Century, also known as Military Anarchy or the Imperial Crisis (AD 235–284), was a period in which the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of invasion, civil war, plague, and economic depression
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Gaius Fulvius Plautianus
Gaius, sometimes spelled Gajus, Cajus, Caius, was a common Latin praenomen; see Gaius (praenomen).Contents1 People 2 Fictional people 3 See also 4 ReferencesPeople[edit]Gaius, the jurist (the rest of his name is unknown) Gaius (biblical figure) Gaius Acilius Gaius Antonius Gaius Antonius Hybrida
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Year Of The Five Emperors
The Year of the Five Emperors
Year of the Five Emperors
refers to the year 193 AD, in which there were five claimants for the title of Roman Emperor: Pertinax, Didius Julianus, Pescennius Niger, Clodius Albinus
Clodius Albinus
and Septimius Severus. This year started a period of civil war where multiple rulers vied for the chance to become Caesar. The political unrest began with the murder of Commodus
Commodus
on New Year’s Eve 192 AD. Once Commodus
Commodus
was assassinated, Pertinax
Pertinax
was named emperor, but immediately aroused opposition from the Praetorian Guard. They plotted and carried out his assassination. Pertinax
Pertinax
was killed while resisting.[1] He had only been emperor for three months
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Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
(Latin: Vallum Aelium), also called the Roman Wall, Picts' Wall, or Vallum Hadriani in Latin, was a defensive fortification in the Roman province
Roman province
of Britannia, begun in AD 122 in the reign of the emperor Hadrian. It ran from the banks of the River Tyne near the North Sea to the Solway Firth
Solway Firth
on the Irish Sea, and was the northern limit of the Roman Empire, immediately north of which were the lands of the northern Ancient Britons, including the Picts. It had a stone base and a stone wall. There were milecastles with two turrets in between. There was a fort about every five Roman miles. From north to south, the wall comprised a ditch, wall, military way and vallum, another ditch with adjoining mounds. It is thought the milecastles were staffed with static garrisons, whereas the forts had fighting garrisons of infantry and cavalry
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Julia Domna
Julia
Julia
is usually a woman's given name. It is a Latinate feminine form of the name Julio and Julius. Julius
Julius
was a Roman family, derived from a founder Julus, the son of Aeneas
Aeneas
and Creusa in Roman mythology, although the name's etymology may possibly derive from Greek ἴουλος (ioulos) "downy-[haired, bearded]"[citation needed] or alternatively from the name of the Roman god Jupiter.[citation needed] Like its male counterpart, the given name Julia
Julia
had been in use throughout Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
(e.g. Julia
Julia
of Corsica) but became rare during the Middle Ages, and was revived only with the Italian Renaissance. It became common in the English-speaking world only in the 18th century
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Dynasty
A dynasty (UK: /ˈdɪnəsti/, US: /ˈdaɪnəsti/) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,[1] usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house",[2] which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase")
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