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Car Stereo
Vehicle audio
Vehicle audio
is equipment installed in a car or other vehicle to provide in-car entertainment and information for the vehicle occupants. Until the 1950s it consisted of a simple AM radio. Additions since then have included FM radio (1952), 8-Track tape players, Cassette Players, CD players (1984), navigation systems, Bluetooth
Bluetooth
telephone integration, and smartphone controllers like CarPlay
CarPlay
and Android Auto. Once controlled from the dashboard with a few buttons, they can now be controlled by steering wheel controls and voice commands. Initially implemented for listening to music and radio, vehicle audio is now part of car telematics, telecommunication, in-vehicle security, handsfree calling, navigation, and remote diagnostics systems
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Car Radio (song)
"Car Radio" is a song written and recorded by American musical duo Twenty One Pilots, originally released in 2011 on their second studio album, Regional at Best. It was re-released in March 2014 as the fifth and final single from their third studio album, Vessel.[2] The song is seen as the duo's most experimental, as it has no sung words or hooks in it.Contents1 Music video 2 Live performances 3 Track listing 4 Personnel 5 Charts5.1 Weekly charts 5.2 Year-end charts6 Certifications 7 Release history 8 References 9 External linksMusic video[edit] The music video was uploaded to YouTube
YouTube
on April 19, 2013 and was directed by Mark C. Eshleman of Reel Bear Media.[3][4] It was shot at a concert
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Frequency Modulation
In telecommunications and signal processing, frequency modulation (FM) is the encoding of information in a carrier wave by varying the instantaneous frequency of the wave. In analog frequency modulation, such as FM radio
FM radio
broadcasting of an audio signal representing voice or music, the instantaneous frequency deviation, the difference between the frequency of the carrier and its center frequency, is proportional to the modulating signal. Digital data can be encoded and transmitted via FM by shifting the carrier's frequency among a predefined set of frequencies representing digits - for example one frequency can represent a binary 1 and a second can represent binary 0. This modulation technique is known as frequency-shift keying (FSK)
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Vibrator (electronic)
In electronics before the development of switch-mode power supplies and the introduction of semiconductor devices operating off low voltage, there was a requirement to generate voltages of about 50 to 250V DC from vehicle batteries. Electromechanical components known as vibrators were used in a circuit similar to modern solid state inverter circuits to provide a pulsating DC which could be converted to a higher voltage with a transformer, rectified, and filtered to create higher-voltage DC. This "vibrator" is essentially a relay using normally closed contacts to supply power to the relay coil, thus immediately breaking the connection, only to be reconnected very quickly through the normally closed contacts. It happens so rapidly it vibrates, and sounds like a buzzer
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Transformer
A transformer is a static electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction. A varying current in one coil of the transformer produces a varying magnetic field, which in turn induces a varying electromotive force (emf) or "voltage" in a second coil. Power can be transferred between the two coils through the magnetic field, without a metallic connection between the two circuits. Faraday's law of induction discovered in 1831 described this effect. Transformers
Transformers
are used to increase or decrease the alternating voltages in electric power applications. Since the invention of the first constant-potential transformer in 1885, transformers have become essential for the transmission, distribution, and utilization of alternating current electrical energy.[3] A wide range of transformer designs is encountered in electronic and electric power applications
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Rectifier
A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), which flows in only one direction. The process is known as rectification, since it "straightens" the direction of current. Physically, rectifiers take a number of forms, including vacuum tube diodes, mercury-arc valves, stacks of copper and selenium oxide plates, semiconductor diodes, silicon-controlled rectifiers and other silicon-based semiconductor switches. Historically, even synchronous electromechanical switches and motors have been used. Early radio receivers, called crystal radios, used a "cat's whisker" of fine wire pressing on a crystal of galena (lead sulfide) to serve as a point-contact rectifier or "crystal detector". Rectifiers have many uses, but are often found serving as components of DC power supplies and high-voltage direct current power transmission systems
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Motorola
Motorola, Inc. (/ˌmoʊtəˈroʊlə/[4]) was an American multinational telecommunications company founded on September 25, 1928, based in Schaumburg, Illinois. After having lost $4.3 billion from 2007 to 2009, the company was divided into two independent public companies, Motorola Mobility
Motorola Mobility
and Motorola Solutions
Motorola Solutions
on January 4, 2011.[5] Motorola Solutions
Motorola Solutions
is generally considered to be the direct successor to Motorola, as the reorganization was structured with Motorola Mobility being spun off.[6] Motorola Mobility
Motorola Mobility
was sold to Google
Google
in 2012, and acquired by Lenovo
Lenovo
in 2014.[7] Motorola
Motorola
designed and sold wireless network equipment such as cellular transmission base stations and signal amplifiers
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Ford Model A (1927–31)
A – Chassis Convertible Sedan (400A) Business Coupe Coupe Deluxe Coupe Special
Special
Coupe
Coupe
('28–29 limited run) Sport
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Ladies' Home Journal
Ladies' Home Journal
Ladies' Home Journal
is an American magazine published by the Meredith Corporation. It was first published on February 16, 1883,[2] and eventually became one of the leading women's magazines of the 20th century in the United States. From 1891 it was published in Philadelphia by the Curtis Publishing Company. In 1903, it was the first American magazine to reach one million subscribers.[3] In the late 20th century, changing tastes and competition from television caused it to lose circulation. Sales of the magazine ensued as the publishing company struggled
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Blaupunkt
 Blaupunkt (help·info) GmbH was a German manufacturer of electronics equipment, noted for its home and car audio equipment
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Medium Wave
Medium wave
Medium wave
(MW) is the part of the medium frequency (MF) radio band used mainly for AM radio broadcasting. For Europe
Europe
the M W band
W band
ranges from 526.5 kHz to 1606.5 kHz,[1] using channels spaced every 9 kHz, and in North America
North America
an extended MW broadcast band ranges from 525 kHz to 1705 kHz,[2] using 10 kHz spaced channels
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Longwave
In radio, longwave, long wave or long-wave,[1] and commonly abbreviated LW,[2] refers to parts of the radio spectrum with wavelengths longer than what was originally called the medium-wave broadcasting band. The term is historic, dating from the early 20th century, when the radio spectrum was considered to consist of longwave (LW), medium-wave (MW), and short-wave (SW) radio bands. Most modern radio systems and devices use wavelengths which would then have been considered 'ultra-short'. In contemporary usage, the term longwave is not defined precisely, and its intended meaning varies. It may be used for radio wavelengths longer than 1,000 m[2] i.e. frequencies[3] up to 300 kilohertz (kHz),[4][5] including the International Telecommunications Union's (ITU's) low frequency (LF, 30–300 kHz) and very low frequency (VLF, 3–30 kHz) bands
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Crossley Motors
Crossley
Crossley
Motors was a British motor vehicle manufacturer based in Manchester, England. They produced approximately 19,000 high-quality cars from 1904 until 1938, 5,500 buses from 1926 until 1958 and 21,000 goods and military vehicles from 1914 to 1945.[1] Crossley
Crossley
Brothers, originally manufacturers of textile machinery and rubber processing plant, began the licensed manufacture of the Otto internal combustion engine before 1880. The firm started car production in 1903, building around 650 vehicles in their first year.[2][3] The company was originally created as a division of engine builders Crossley
Crossley
Brothers, but from 1910 became a stand-alone company. Although founded as a car maker, they were major suppliers of vehicles to British forces during World War I, and in the 1920s moved into bus manufacture
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Mopar
Mopar[1] is the parts, service and customer care organization within Fiat Chrysler
Chrysler
Automobiles. The name derives from a combination of letters from the words "MOtor" and "PARts".[1][2] Mopar
Mopar
also designs and builds a small number of customized vehicles.[3]Contents1 History 2 Sponsorship 3 Custom cars 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit]A Mopar
Mopar
oil filter from the 1950sThe term was first used by Chrysler
Chrysler
in the 1920s and was introduced as a brand starting in 1937. The name Mopar
Mopar
was created by a committee to use on cans of " Chrysler
Chrysler
Motor Parts" antifreeze.[1] Mopar
Mopar
parts are original equipment manufactured parts for FCA US LLC vehicles
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Voltage
Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted ∆V or ∆U, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points. The voltage between two points is equal to the work done per unit of charge against a static electric field to move a test charge between two points
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Philco
Philco
Philco
(founded as Helios Electric Company, renamed Philadelphia Storage Battery Company) was a pioneer in battery, radio, and television production. In North America, it is the Philco
Philco
brand owned by Philips. In other markets, it is the Philco
Philco
International brand owned by Electrolux. In the early 1920s, Philco
Philco
made storage batteries, "socket power" battery eliminator units, and battery chargers. With the invention of the rectifier tube, which made it practical to power radios by electrical outlets, in 1928, Philco
Philco
decided to get into the booming radio business.[1] They followed other radio makers such as Atwater-Kent, Zenith Electronics, RCA, Freshman Masterpiece, FADA Radio, and AH Grebe into the battery-powered radio business
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