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Capital Punishment
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime. The sentence that someone be punished in such a manner is referred to as a death sentence, whereas the act of carrying out the sentence is known as an execution. Crimes that are punishable by death are known as capital crimes or capital offences, and they commonly include offences such as murder, treason, espionage, war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide. Etymologically, the term capital (lit
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Espionage
Espionage
Espionage
(colloquially, spying) is the obtaining of secret or confidential information without the permission of the holder of the information. Spies help agencies uncover secret information.[1] Any individual or spy ring (a cooperating group of spies), in the service of a government, company or independent operation, can commit espionage. The practice is clandestine, as it is by definition unwelcome and in many cases illegal and punishable by law. Espionage is a subset of "intelligence" gathering, which includes espionage as well as information gathering from public sources. Espionage
Espionage
is often part of an institutional effort by a government or commercial concern. However, the term tends to associate with state spying on potential or actual enemies for military purposes
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Courts Of Scotland
The courts of Scotland
Scotland
are responsible for administration of justice in Scotland, under statutory, common law and equitable provisions within Scots law
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Imprisonment
Imprisonment (from imprison Old French, French emprisonner, from en in + prison prison, from Latin prensio, arrest, from prehendere, prendere, to seize) is the restraint of a person's liberty, for any cause whatsoever, whether by authority of the government, or by a person acting without such authority. In the latter case it is "false imprisonment". Imprisonment does not necessarily imply a place of confinement, with bolts and bars, but may be exercised by any use or display of force, lawfully or unlawfully, wherever displayed, even in the open street
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Sex Offender Registration
A sex offender registry is a system in various countries designed to allow government authorities to keep track of and activities of sex offenders including those who have completed their criminal sentences. In some jurisdictions, where sex offender registration can, registration is accompanied by residential address notification requirements. In many jurisdictions, registered sex offenders are subject to additional restrictions, including on housing. Those on parole or probation may be subject to restrictions that do not apply to other parolees or probationers. Sometimes, these include (or have been proposed to include) restrictions on being in the presence of underage persons (under the age of majority), living in proximity to a school or day care center, owning toys or items targeted towards children, or using the Internet
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Sexually Violent Predator Legislation
In some jurisdictions may commit certain types of dangerous sex offenders to state-run detention facilities following the completion of their sentence if that person has a "mental abnormality" or personality disorder that makes the person likely to engage in sexual offenses if not confined in a secure facility.[1][2] In the United States, twenty states, the federal government, and the District of Columbia have a version of these commitment laws, which are referred to as "Sexually Violent Predator" (SVP) or "Sexually Dangerous Persons" laws.[2] Generally speaking, SVP laws have three elements:[3] (1) That the person has been convicted of a sexually violent offense (a term that is defined applicable statutes) (2) That the person suffers from a mental abnormality and/or personality disorder, which causes him/her serious difficulty controlling his/her sexually violent behavior
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Evidence (law)
The law of evidence, also known as the rules of evidence, encompasses the rules and legal principles that govern the proof of facts in a legal proceeding. These rules determine what evidence must or must not be considered by the trier of fact in reaching its decision. The trier of fact is a judge in bench trials, or the jury in any cases involving a jury.[1] The law of evidence is also concerned with the quantum (amount), quality, and type of proof needed to prevail in litigation. The rules vary depending upon whether the venue is a criminal court, civil court, or family court, and they vary by jurisdiction. The quantum of evidence is the amount of evidence needed; the quality of proof is how reliable such evidence should be considered. Important rules that govern admissibility concern hearsay, authentication, relevance, privilege, witnesses, opinions, expert testimony, identification and rules of physical evidence
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Courts Of The United States
The courts of the United States are closely linked hierarchical systems of courts at the federal and state levels. The federal courts form the judicial branch of the federal government of the United States and operate under the authority of the United States Constitution and federal law. The state and territorial courts of the individual U.S. states and territories operate under the authority of the state and territorial constitutions and state and territorial law. Federal statutes that refer to the "courts of the United States" are referring only to the courts of the federal government, and not the courts of the individual states and counties. Because of the federalist underpinnings of the division between sovereign federal and state governments, the various state court systems are free to operate in ways that vary widely from those of the federal government, and from one another
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Courts Of England And Wales
The Judiciary of England and Wales
England and Wales
within Her Majesty's Courts and Tribunals Service[1] are the civil and criminal courts responsible for the administration of justice in England and Wales. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
does not have a single unified legal system— England and Wales
England and Wales
has one system, Scotland another, and Northern Ireland a third. There are exceptions to this rule; for example in immigration law, the Asylum and Immigration Tribunal's jurisdiction covers the whole of the United Kingdom, while in employment law there is a single system of employment tribunals for England, Wales, and Scotland but not Northern Ireland
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Civil Procedure
Civil procedure is the body of law that sets out the rules and standards that courts follow when adjudicating civil lawsuits (as opposed to procedures in criminal law matters)
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Courts Of Canada
Provincial and territorial executive councilsPremiersLegislative (Queen-in-Parliament) Federal parliamentSenateSpeaker of the Senate Government Leader in the Senate Opposition Leader in the Senate Senate divisionsHouse of CommonsSpeaker of the house Government Leader in the house Opposition Leader in the house Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition Leader of the Opposition Shadow cabinetProvincial and territorial parliamentsJudicial (Queen-on-the-Bench) Court
Court
systemSupreme courtFederal chief justice (Richard Wagner)Pr
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Speedy Trial
The right to a speedy trial is a human right under which it is asserted that a government prosecutor may not delay the trial of a criminal suspect arbitrarily and indefinitely. Otherwise, the power to impose such delays would effectively allow prosecutors to send anyone to jail for an arbitrary length of time without trial. Although it is important for the protection of speedy trial rights that there be a court in which a defendant may complain about the unreasonable delay of the trial, it is also important that nations implement structures that avoid the delay.[1]Contents1 Recognition of speedy trial rights1.1 Canada 1.2 Europe 1.3 Philippines 1.4 United States2 See also 3 ReferencesRecognition of speedy trial rights[edit] In jurisdictions with strong rule of law, the requirement of a "speedy trial" forces prosecutors to diligently build cases within a reasonable amount of time commensurate with the complexity and heinousness of the crimes of which suspects are accused
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Right To A Fair Trial
A trial which is observed by trial judge or by jury without being partial is called a fair trial. Various rights associated with a fair trial are explicitly proclaimed in Article 10 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution, and Article 6 of the European Convention of Human Rights, as well as numerous other constitutions and declarations throughout the world
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Criminal Procedure
Criminal procedure is the adjudication process of the criminal law. While criminal procedure differs dramatically by jurisdiction, the process generally begins with a formal criminal charge, and results in the conviction or acquittal of the defendant. Criminal procedure can be either in form of inquisitorial or adversarial criminal procedure.Contents1 Basic rights 2 Difference in criminal and civil procedures 3 Differences between civil law and common law systems 4 See also 5 References 6 Further readingBasic rights[edit] Currently, in many countries with a democratic system and the rule of law, criminal procedure puts the burden of proof on the prosecution – that is, it is up to the prosecution to prove that the defendant is guilty beyond any reasonable doubt, as opposed to having the defense prove that s/he is innocent, and any doubt is resolved in favor of the defendant
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Courts Of The United Kingdom
The Courts of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
are separated into three separate jurisdictions, the Courts of England
England
and Wales,
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Discharge (sentence)
A discharge is a type of sentence where no punishment is imposed, and which (arguably) vitiates the finding of guilt. An absolute discharge is an unconditional discharge where the Court finds that a crime has technically been committed, but that any punishment of the defendant would be inappropriate, and the case is closed. In some jurisdictions, an absolute discharge means there is no conviction on the defendant's record, despite the plea of the defendant. A conditional discharge is an order made by a criminal court whereby an offender will not be sentenced for an offence unless a further offence is committed within a stated period
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