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Canton System
The Canton System
Canton System
(1757–1842) served as a means for China
China
to control trade with the west within its own country by focusing all trade on the southern port of Canton (now Guangzhou). Known in Chinese as the Yī kǒu tōng shāng (一口通商, "Single port commerce system") the policy arose in 1757 as a response to a perceived political and commercial threat from abroad on the part of successive Chinese emperors. From the late seventeenth century onwards, Chinese merchants known as Hongs (háng, 行 ) managed all trade in the port. Operating from the Thirteen Factories
Thirteen Factories
located on the banks of the Pearl River outside Canton, in 1760, by order of the Qing Qianlong Emperor, they became officially sanctioned as a monopoly known as the Cohong. Thereafter Chinese merchants dealing with foreign trade (known as yángháng (洋行, literally "ocean traders", i.e
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Beijing
Beijing
Beijing
(/beɪˈdʒɪŋ/;[9] Mandarin: [pèi.tɕíŋ] ( listen)), formerly romanized as Peking,[10] is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city
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Papal Bull
A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church. It is named after the leaden seal (bulla) that was traditionally appended to the end in order to authenticate it.Contents1 History 2 Format 3 Seal 4 Content 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Further readingHistory[edit]Printed text of Pope
Pope
Leo X's Bull against the errors of Martin Luther, also known as Exsurge Domine, issued in June 1520Papal bulls have been in use at least since the 6th century, but the phrase was not used until around the end of the 13th century, and then only internally for unofficial administrative purposes
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Dinghai District
 Dinghai (help·info) (Chinese: 定海区) is a district of Zhoushan City
Zhoushan City
made of 128 islands in Zhejiang
Zhejiang
province, China. It is based on the larger northwestern half of Zhoushan
Zhoushan
Island, where it borders Putuo in the east. The district boundary meets that of Daishan County out at sea to the north of the island. Its southwestern boundary intersects the border of Ningbo, also entirely at sea. The district used to be a county
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China
China, officially the People's Republic
People's Republic
of China
China
(PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia
East Asia
and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area,[k][19] depending on the source consulted. China
China
also has the most neighbor countries in the world
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Shanghai
Shanghai
Shanghai
(Chinese: 上海; Wu Chinese:  Wu pronunciation; Mandarin: [ʂâŋ.xài] ( listen)) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China
China
and the most populous city in the world, with a population of more than 24 million as of 2017[update].[13][14] It is a global financial centre[15] and transport hub, with the world's busiest container port.[16] Located in the Yangtze
Yangtze
River Delta, it sits on the south edge of the estuary of the Yangtze
Yangtze
in the middle portion of the East China
China
coast
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Jiangsu Province
Jiangsu
Jiangsu
( listen (help·info)), formerly romanized as Kiangsu, is an eastern-central coastal province of the People's Republic of China. It is one of the leading provinces in finance, education, technology and tourism, with its capital in Nanjing. Jiangsu
Jiangsu
is the third smallest, but the fifth most populous and the most densely populated of the 23 provinces of the People's Republic of China. Jiangsu
Jiangsu
has the highest GDP per capita of Chinese provinces and second-highest GDP of Chinese provinces, after Guangdong.[4] Jiangsu borders Shandong
Shandong
in the north, Anhui
Anhui
to the west, and Zhejiang
Zhejiang
and Shanghai
Shanghai
to the south
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Picul
A picul /ˈpɪkəl/[1] or tam[2] is a traditional Asian unit of weight, defined as "a shoulder-load, as much as a man can carry on a shoulder-pole".[1]Contents1 History 2 Definitions 3 The stone 4 ReferencesHistory[edit] The word picul appeared as early as the mid 9th century in Javanese. Following Spanish, Portuguese, British and most especially the Dutch colonial maritime trade, the term picul was both a convenient unit, and a lingua franca unit that was widely understood and employed by other Austronesians (in modern Malaysia
Malaysia
and the Philippines) and their centuries-old trading relations with Indians, Chinese and Arabs. It remained a convenient reference unit for many commercial trade journals in the 19th century. One example is Hunts Merchant Magazine of 1859 giving detailed tables of expected prices of various commodities, such as coffee, e.g
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Nankeen
Nankeen, also called Nankeen
Nankeen
cloth, is a kind of pale yellowish cloth, originally made at Nanjing, China
Nanjing, China
from a yellow variety of cotton, but subsequently manufactured from ordinary cotton that is then dyed. Also in the plural a piece or variety of this cloth.[1] The term blue nankeen describes hand-printed fabric of artistic refinement and primitive simplicity, which originated on the Silk
Silk
Road over three thousand years ago. Hand-carved stencils, originally made from wood but now from heavy paper, are prepared and a mix of soya bean flour and slaked lime is applied through the openings of the stencil onto the 100% cotton fabric. When dry, the fabric is then dipped numerous times into the large tubs containing the indigo dye. After the desired colour is achieved and the fabric has dried, the paste is scraped off, revealing the white patterns on the blue cloth
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Chinese Ceramics
Chinese ceramics
Chinese ceramics
show a continuous development since pre-dynastic times and are one of the most significant forms of Chinese art
Chinese art
and ceramics globally. The first pottery was made during the Palaeolithic era. Chinese ceramics
Chinese ceramics
range from construction materials such as bricks and tiles, to hand-built pottery vessels fired in bonfires or kilns, to the sophisticated Chinese porcelain wares made for the imperial court and for export. Porcelain
Porcelain
is so identified with China that it is still called "china" in everyday English usage. Most later Chinese ceramics, even of the finest quality, were made on an industrial scale, thus few names of individual potters were recorded
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Pope Clement XI
Pope
Pope
Clement XI (Latin: Clemens XI; 23 July 1649 – 19 March 1721), born Giovanni Francesco Albani, was Pope
Pope
from 23 November 1700 to his death in 1721. Clement XI was a patron of the arts and of science. He was also a great benefactor of the Vatican Library, his interest in archaeology is credited with saving much of Rome’s antiquity. He authorized expeditions which succeeded in rediscovering various ancient Christian writings, and authorized excavations of the Roman catacombs
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Scholar-bureaucrats
Scholar-officials, also known as Literati, Scholar-gentlemen, Scholar-bureaucrats
Scholar-bureaucrats
or Scholar-gentry (Chinese: 士大夫; pinyin: shì dàfū) were politicians and government officials appointed by the emperor of China
China
to perform day-to-day political duties from the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
to the end of the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
in 1912, China's last imperial dynasty. After the Sui dynasty
Sui dynasty
these officials mostly came from the scholar-gentry (紳士 shēnshì) who had earned academic degrees (such as xiucai, juren, or jinshi) by passing the imperial examinations. The scholar-officials were schooled in calligraphy and Confucian texts. They dominated the government and local life of China until the mid-20th century
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Fujian Province
Fujian
Fujian
(Chinese: 福建; pinyin: Fújiàn; pronounced [fǔtɕjɛ̂n] ( listen)), formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China. Fujian
Fujian
is bordered by three provinces: Zhejiang
Zhejiang
to the north, Jiangxi
Jiangxi
to the west and Guangdong
Guangdong
to the south, along with Taiwan
Taiwan
150 km to the east, across the Taiwan
Taiwan
strait.[6] The name Fujian
Fujian
came from the combination of Fuzhou
Fuzhou
and Jianzhou (a former name for Jian'ou) two cities in Fujian, during the Tang dynasty
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Supercargo
A supercargo (from Spanish sobrecargo) is a person employed on board a vessel by the owner of cargo carried on the ship. The duties of a supercargo are defined by admiralty law and include managing the cargo owner's trade, selling the merchandise in ports to which the vessel is sailing, and buying and receiving goods to be carried on the return voyage. He has control of the cargo unless limited by his contract or other agreement. For instance, the supercargo has no authority over the stevedores, and he has no role in the necessary preparatory work prior to the handling of cargo. Because a supercargo sails from port to port with the vessel to which he is attached, he differs from a factor, who has a fixed place of residence at a port or other trading place.Contents1 History1.1 Sweden2 See also 3 ReferencesHistory[edit]This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it
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Thailand
Coordinates: 15°24′N 101°18′E / 15.4°N 101.3°E / 15.4; 101.3Kingdom of Thailand ราชอาณาจักรไทย (Thai) Ratcha-anachak ThaiFlagEmblemAnthem: Phleng Chat Thai (English: "Thai National Anthem")Royal anthem: Sansoen Phra Barami (English: "Glorify His prestige")Location of  Thailand  (green) in ASEAN  (dark grey)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Bangkok 13°45′N 100°29′E / 13.750°N 100.483°E / 13.750; 100.483Official languages Thai[1]Spoken languagesIsan Kam Mueang Pak TaiEthnic groups (2009;[6] 2011[3]:95–99)Thai  ∟ 34.1% Central Thai  ∟ 24.9% Khon
Khon
Isan[2]  ∟ 9.9% Khon
Khon
Muang  ∟ 7.5% Southern Thai 14% Thai Chinese 12% Others (incl
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South China Sea
The South China
China
Sea
Sea
is a marginal sea that is part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Karimata and Malacca
Malacca
Straits to the Strait of Taiwan
Taiwan
of around 3,500,000 square kilometres (1,400,000 sq mi)
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