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Cantharellaceae
Afrocantharellus Cantharellus Craterellus Goossensia Parastereopsis Pseudocraterellus PterygellusSynonymsCraterellaceae Herter (1910)The Cantharellaceae
Cantharellaceae
are a family of fungi in the order Cantharellales. The family contains the chanterelles and related species, a group of fungi that superficially resemble agarics (gilled mushrooms) but have smooth, wrinkled, or gill-like hymenophores (spore-bearing undersurfaces). Species in the family are ectomycorrhizal, forming a mutually beneficial relationship with the roots of trees and other plants
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Thelephora
Thelephora is a genus of fungi in the family Thelephoraceae. The genus has a widespread distribution and contains about 50 species.[2] Fruit bodies of species are leathery, usually brownish at maturity, and range in shape from coral-like tufts to having distinct caps. Almost all species in the genus are thought to be inedible,[3] but Thelephora ganbajun is a gourmet fungus in Yunnan province of southwest China.[4] The generic name is derived from the Greek thele (θηλή) meaning nipple and phorus meaning bearing.[5] Species in the genus are commonly known as "fiber fans" and "fiber vases".[3] Species[edit]T. albidobrunnea Schwein. 1832 T. alta Corner 1968[6] T. anthocephala (Bull.) Fr. 1838 T. arbuscula Corner 1968[6] T. atra Weinm. 1836 T. atrocitrina Quél. 1875 T. aurantiotincta Corner 1968[6] T. borneensis Corner 1976[7] T. bourdotiana Zecchin 2008 T. brasiliensis (Rick) Rick 1959 T. brunneoviolacea Beeli 1927[8] T. caryophyllea (Schaeff.) Pers. 1801 T
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Hymenophores
A hymenophore refers to the hymenium-bearing structure of a fungal fruiting body. Hymenophores can be smooth surfaces, lamellae, folds, tubes, or teeth. The term was coined by Robert Hooke
Robert Hooke
in 1665.This fungus-related article is a stub
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Ectomycorrhizal
An ectomycorrhiza (from Greek ἐκτός ektos, "outside", μύκης mykes, "fungus", and ῥίζα rhiza, "root"; pl. ectomycorrhizas or ectomycorrhizae, abbreviated EcM) is a form of symbiotic relationship that occurs between a fungal symbiont and the roots of various plant species. The mycobiont tends to be predominantly from the phyla Basidiomycota
Basidiomycota
and Ascomycota, although a few are represented in the phylum Zygomycota.[1] Ectomycorrhizas form between fungi and the roots of around 2% of plant species.[1] These tend to be composed of woody plants, including species from the birch, dipterocarp, myrtle, beech, willow, pine and rose families.[2] Unlike other mycorrhizal relationships, such as arbuscular mycorrhiza and ericoid mycorrhiza, ectomycorrhizal fungi do not penetrate their host’s cell walls
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Decurrent
Decurrent is a term used in botany and mycology to describe plant or fungal parts that extend downward. In botany, the term is most often applied to leaf blades that partly wrap or have wings around the stem or petiole and extend down along the stem. A "decurrent branching habit" is a plant form common for shrubs and most angiosperm trees, contrasted with the excurrent or "cone-shaped crown" common among many gymnosperms.[1] The decurrent habit is characterized by having weak apical dominance that eventually produces a rounded or spreading tree crown. Examples of trees with decurrent habit are most hardwood trees: oak, hickory, maple, etc.[2] In mycology, the term is most often applied to the hymenophore of a basidiocarp (such as the lamellae or "gills" of a mushroom or the "pores" of a bracket fungus) when it is broadly attached to and extends down the stipe.[3] References[edit]^ Harris RW. (April 1980). "Structural Development of Trees". Journal of Arboriculture
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Basidiocarp
In fungi, a basidiocarp, basidiome or basidioma (plural: basidiomata) is the sporocarp of a basidiomycete, the multicellular structure on which the spore-producing hymenium is borne. Basidiocarps are characteristic of the hymenomycetes; rusts and smuts do not produce such structures. As with other sporocarps, epigeous (above-ground) basidiocarps that are visible to the naked eye (especially those with a more or less agaricoid morphology) are commonly referred to as mushrooms, while hypogeous (underground) basidiocarps are usually called false truffles.Contents1 Structure 2 Types 3 See also 4 External linksStructure[edit] All basidiocarps serve as the structure on which the hymenium is produced. Basidia
Basidia
are found on the surface of the hymenium, and the basidia ultimately produce spores
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Mycologist
Mycology
Mycology
is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi, including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and their use to humans as a source for tinder, medicine, food, and entheogens, as well as their dangers, such as toxicity or infection. A biologist specializing in mycology is called a mycologist. Mycology
Mycology
branches into the field of phytopathology, the study of plant diseases, and the two disciplines remain closely related because the vast majority of plant pathogens are fungi.Contents1 Overview 2 History 3 Mycology
Mycology
and drug discovery 4 See also 5 References5.1 Cited literature6 External linksOverview[edit] Historically, mycology was a branch of botany because, although fungi are evolutionarily more closely related to animals than to plants, this was not recognized until a few decades ago
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Agaricus
Agaricus is a genus of mushrooms containing both edible and poisonous species, with possibly over 300 members worldwide.[2][3] The genus includes the common ("button") mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and the field mushroom (Agaricus campestris), the dominant cultivated mushrooms of the West. Members of Agaricus are characterized by having a fleshy cap or pileus, from the underside of which grow a number of radiating plates or gills on which are produced the naked spores. They are distinguished from other members of their family, Agaricaceae, by their chocolate-brown spores
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Order (biology)
In biological classification, the order (Latin: ordo) isa taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, family, genus, and species, with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, superorder, may be added directly above order, while suborder would be a lower rank. a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines).Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes.What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist, as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order
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René Maire
René Charles Joseph Ernest Maire (29 May 1878, Lons-le-Saunier – 24 November 1949) was a French botanist and mycologist.[1] His major work was the Flore de l'Afrique du Nord in 16 volumes published posthumously in 1953. He collected plants from Algeria, Morocco, France, and Mali for the herbarium of the National Botanic Garden of Belgium.[2]Contents1 Biography 2 Named species2.1 Legacy3 NotesBiography[edit] His botanical career began very early. At 18, he penned a work on the local flora of the Haute-Saône, currently on display at the Natural History Museum of Gray. He collected plants for study in Algeria and Morocco between 1902 and 1904.[3] After obtaining his PhD in 1905, he was a professor of botany at the Faculty of Sciences in Algiers starting in 1911 where he specialised in phytopathology. He was put in charge of botanical research by the Moroccan government and was responsible for botanical studies in the Central Sahara
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Basidia
A basidium (pl., basidia) is a microscopic sporangium (or spore-producing structure) found on the hymenophore of fruiting bodies of basidiomycete fungi. The presence of basidia is one of the main characteristic features of the Basidiomycota. A basidium usually bears four sexual spores called basidiospores; occasionally the number may be two or even eight. In a typical basidium, each basidiospore is borne at the tip of a narrow prong or horn called a sterigma (pl. sterigmata), and is forcibly discharged upon maturity. The word basidium literally means little pedestal, from the way in which the basidium supports the spores. However, some biologists suggest that the structure more closely resembles a club
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DNA Sequences
In mathematics, a sequence is an enumerated collection of objects in which repetitions are allowed. Like a set, it contains members (also called elements, or terms). The number of elements (possibly infinite) is called the length of the sequence. Unlike a set, order matters, and exactly the same elements can appear multiple times at different positions in the sequence. Formally, a sequence can be defined as a function whose domain is either the set of the natural numbers (for infinite sequences) or the set of the first n natural numbers (for a sequence of finite length n). The position of an element in a sequence is its rank or index; it is the integer from which the element is the image. It depends on the context or of a specific convention, if the first element has index 0 or 1
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Clavulinaceae
Burgella Clavulina Membranomyces MulticlavulaThe Clavulinaceae
Clavulinaceae
are a family of fungi in the order Cantharellales. The family is not well defined, but currently comprises species of clavarioid (club and coral) fungi as well as some corticioid (crust- and patch-forming) fungi. These species are nutritionally diverse, some being ectomycorrhizal, others wood-rotting saprotrophs, others lichenized, and yet others lichenicolous (growing on or parasitizing lichens).Contents1 Taxonomy1.1 History 1.2 Current status2 Distribution and habitat 3 ReferencesTaxonomy[edit] History[edit] The Dutch mycologist Marinus Anton Donk first published the tribe Clavulinae in 1933 to accommodate species of clavarioid fungi in the genus Clavulina
Clavulina
that had "stichic" basidia (basidia with nuclear spindles arranged longitudinally)
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Ernst Albert Gäumann
Ernst Albert Gäumann (6 October 1893 – 5 December 1963) was a Swiss botanist and mycologist. Born in Lyss, Canton of Bern, he obtained his early education in Biel, where he experienced both German and French languages and cultures. Studying with Eduard Fischer at the University of Bern, Gäumann received his PhD in 1917 for his research on Peronospora, a genus of water molds. After travels and study in Sweden, the United States, and the East Indies, Gäumann worked as a plant pathologist in Buitenzorg, Java, from 1919 to 1922, and then as a botanist in Zurich for several years. He held a position at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology from 1927 until his death.[1] Gäumann had diverse research interests, including plant pathology, soil algae, rust fungi, and fungal evolution. When he was 33, he published his work Vergleichende Morphologie der Pilze, the English translation of which became a standard textbook for mycology
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