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Cantharellaceae
Afrocantharellus Cantharellus
Cantharellus
Craterellus Goossensia Parastereopsis Pseudocraterellus Pterygellus SYNONYMS Craterellaceae Herter (1910) The CANTHARELLACEAE are a family of fungi in the order Cantharellales . The family contains the chanterelles and related species, a group of fungi that superficially resemble agarics (gilled mushrooms) but have smooth, wrinkled, or gill-like hymenophores (spore-bearing undersurfaces). Species in the family are ectomycorrhizal , forming a mutually beneficial relationship with the roots of trees and other plants
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Decurrent
DECURRENT is a term used in botany and mycology to describe plant or fungal parts that extend downward. IN BOTANY, the term is most often applied to leaf blades that partly wrap or have wings around the stem or petiole and extend down along the stem. A "decurrent branching habit" is a plant form common for shrubs and most angiosperm trees, contrasted with the excurrent or "cone-shaped crown" common among many gymnosperms . The decurrent habit is characterized by having weak apical dominance that eventually produces a rounded or spreading tree crown . Examples of trees with decurrent habit are most hardwood trees: oak , hickory , maple , etc. IN MYCOLOGY, the term is most often applied to the hymenophore of a basidiocarp (such as the lamellae or "gills" of a mushroom or the "pores" of a bracket fungus ) when it is broadly attached to and extends down the stipe . REFERENCES * ^ Harris RW. (April 1980). "Structural Development of Trees". Journal of Arboriculture
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Basidiocarp
In fungi , a BASIDIOCARP, BASIDIOME or BASIDIOMA (plural: BASIDIOMATA) is the sporocarp of a basidiomycete , the multicellular structure on which the spore -producing hymenium is borne. Basidiocarps are characteristic of the hymenomycetes ; rusts and smuts do not produce such structures. As with other sporocarps, epigeous (above-ground) basidiocarps that are visible to the naked eye (especially those with a more or less agaricoid morphology) are commonly referred to as mushrooms , while hypogeous (underground) basidiocarps are usually called false truffles . CONTENTS * 1 Structure * 2 Types * 3 See also * 4 External links STRUCTUREAll basidiocarps serve as the structure on which the hymenium is produced. Basidia
Basidia
are found on the surface of the hymenium, and the basidia ultimately produce spores
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Mycologist
MYCOLOGY is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi , including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and their use to humans as a source for tinder , medicine , food , and entheogens , as well as their dangers, such as poisoning or infection . A biologist specializing in mycology is called a MYCOLOGIST. From mycology arose the field of phytopathology , the study of plant diseases, and the two disciplines remain closely related because the vast majority of "plant" pathogens are fungi. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 History * 3 Medical mycology * 4 See also * 5 References * 5.1 Cited literature * 6 External links OVERVIEWHistorically, mycology was a branch of botany because, although fungi are evolutionarily more closely related to animals than to plants, this was not recognized until a few decades ago
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Trama (mycology)
In mycology , TRAMA is the inner, fleshy portion of a mushroom 's basidiocarp , or fruit body. It is distinct from the outer layer of tissue, known as the pileipellis or cuticle , and from the spore -bearing tissue layer known as the hymenium . In essence, the trama is the tissue we call the "flesh" of mushrooms and similar fungi. Literally, "trama" is the Latin
Latin
word for the "weft " or "woof " yarns in the weaving of cloth. This probably is related to the basidiocarp trama being "filler" tissue and that analogously the woof yarn in weaving is sometimes called "fill ". Furthermore, the trama tends to be soft tissue, and in weaving, the woof yarn is not tightly stretched; it therefore need not as a rule be as strong as the warp yarn. REFERENCES * ^ Largent D, Johnson D, Watling R. 1977. How to Identify Mushrooms to Genus III: Microscopic Features. Arcata, CA: Mad River Press. ISBN 0-916422-09-7 . pp. 60–70. * ^ Jaeger, Edmund C. (1959)
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Ectomycorrhizal
An ECTOMYCORRHIZA (from Greek ἐκτός ektos, "outside", μύκης mykes, "fungus", and ῥίζα rhiza, "root"; pl. ECTOMYCORRHIZAS or ECTOMYCORRHIZAE, abbreviated ECM) is a form of symbiotic relationship that occurs between a fungal symbiont and the roots of various plant species . The mycobiont tends to be predominantly from the phyla Basidiomycota and Ascomycota
Ascomycota
, although a few are represented in the phylum Zygomycota . Ectomycorrhizas form between fungi and the roots of around 2% of plant species. These tend to be composed of woody plants , including species from the birch , dipterocarp , myrtle , beech , willow , pine and rose families. Unlike other mycorrhizal relationships, such as arbuscular mycorrhiza and ericoid mycorrhiza , ectomycorrhizal fungi do not penetrate their host’s cell walls
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Order (biology)
In biological classification , the ORDER (Latin : ordo) is * a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes . Other well-known ranks are life , domain , kingdom , phylum , class , family , genus , and species , with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, SUPERORDER, may be added directly above order, while SUBORDER would be a lower rank. * a taxonomic unit, a taxon , in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines). Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes. What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist , as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order
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Agarics
An AGARIC /ˈæɡərɪk/ or /əˈɡærɪk/ is a type of mushroom fungus fruiting body characterized by the presence of a pileus (cap) that is clearly differentiated from the stipe (stalk), with lamellae (gills) on the underside of the pileus. "Agaric" can also refer to a basidiomycete species characterized by an agaric-type fruiting body. Archaically agaric meant 'tree-fungus' (after Latin agaricum); however, that changed with the Linnaean interpretation in 1753 when Linnaeus
Linnaeus
used the generic name Agaricus
Agaricus
for gilled mushrooms. Most species of agarics are within orders of and describe the members of the order Agaricales
Agaricales
in the subphylum Agaricomycotina
Agaricomycotina

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Hymenophores
A HYMENOPHORE refers to the hymenium -bearing structure of a fungal fruiting body . Hymenophores can be smooth surfaces, lamellae , folds, tubes, or teeth. The term was coined by Robert Hooke
Robert Hooke
in 1665. This fungus -related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Thelephora
THELEPHORA is a genus of fungi in the family Thelephoraceae . The genus has a widespread distribution and contains about 50 species. Fruit bodies of species are leathery, usually brownish at maturity, and range in shape from coral-like tufts to having distinct caps . Almost all species in the genus are thought to be inedible, but Thelephora ganbajun is a gourmet fungus in Yunnan
Yunnan
province of southwest China. The generic name is derived from the Greek thele (θηλή) meaning nipple and phorus meaning bearing. Species in the genus are commonly known as "fiber fans" and "fiber vases". SPECIES * T. albidobrunnea Schwein. 1832 * T. alta Corner 1968 * T. anthocephala (Bull.) Fr. 1838 * T. arbuscula Corner 1968 * T. atra Weinm. 1836 * T. atrocitrina Quél. 1875 * T. aurantiotincta Corner 1968 * T. borneensis Corner 1976 * T. bourdotiana Zecchin 2008 * T. brasiliensis (Rick) Rick 1959 * T
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Agaricus
AGARICUS is a genus of mushrooms containing both edible and poisonous species, with possibly over 300 members worldwide. The genus includes the common ("button") mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus ) and the field mushroom ( Agaricus campestris
Agaricus campestris
), the dominant cultivated mushrooms of the West. Members of Agaricus
Agaricus
are characterized by having a fleshy cap or pileus , from the underside of which grow a number of radiating plates or gills on which are produced the naked spores . They are distinguished from other members of their family, Agaricaceae , by their chocolate-brown spores. Members of Agaricus
Agaricus
also have a stem or stipe, which elevates it above the object on which the mushroom grows, or substrate , and a partial veil , which protects the developing gills and later forms a ring or annulus on the stalk
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Hydnum
Erinaceus Dill. (1719) Bidona Adans. (1763) Bidonia Adans. (1763) Echinus Haller (1768) Hypothele Paulet (1808) Dentinum Gray (1821) Erinaceus Dill. ex Maratti (1822) Tyrodon P.Karst. (1881) HYDNUM is a genus of fungi in the Hydnaceae family. They are notable for their unusual spore -bearing structures of teeth rather than gills . The best known are the edible species Hydnum repandum and H. rufescens . The word is derived from (h)udnon/ύδνον, an Ancient Greek word for truffle. The white or buff Hydnum repandum has a spore scatterer of still another shape. The smooth cap grows as wide as 8 inches across. The stem is off-center and is less than 2 inches long. Hydnum
Hydnum
has many brittle, white teeth from which the spores drop. The mushrooms of the Hydnum
Hydnum
group grow both on ground and on wood
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Marinus Anton Donk
MARINUS ANTON DONK (14 August 1908 – 2 September 1972) was a Dutch mycologist . He specialized in the taxonomy and nomenclature of mushrooms . Rolf Singer wrote in his obituary that he was "one of the most outstanding figures of contemporary mycology." CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Career * 3 Selected publications * 4 Taxa described * 5 Eponymous taxa * 6 Further reading * 7 References EARLY LIFEDonk was born in Situbondo , East Java
East Java
in 1908, and completed secondary school in The Hague
The Hague
, Netherlands. He studied biology at the University of Utrecht
University of Utrecht
, starting in 1927. As a graduate student in mycology he completed the work for his 1931 "Revisie van de Nederlandse Heterobasidiomyceteae" (Revision of the Dutch Heterobasidiomycetes)
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Molecular Phylogenetics
MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETICS (/məˈlɛkjᵿlər ˌfaɪloʊdʒəˈnɛtɪks, mɒ-, moʊ-/ ) is the branch of phylogeny that analyses hereditary molecular differences, mainly in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships. The result of a molecular phylogenetic analysis is expressed in a phylogenetic tree . Molecular phylogenetics is one aspect of MOLECULAR SYSTEMATICS, a broader term that also includes the use of molecular data in taxonomy and biogeography
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Ernst Albert Gäumann
ALBERT may refer to: * Albert (surname) , a family name (and people with that name) * Albert (given name) * Albertet , an Occitan diminutive of AlberCONTENTS * 1 Fictional characters * 2 Geography * 3 Store chains * 4 Other * 5 See also FICTIONAL CHARACTERS * Albert (suspiria) , a minor character in Dario Argento's 1977 film Suspiria *
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Clavulinaceae
Burgella Clavulina Membranomyces Multiclavula The CLAVULINACEAE are a family of fungi in the order Cantharellales . The family is not well defined, but currently comprises species of clavarioid (club and coral) fungi as well as some corticioid (crust- and patch-forming) fungi . These species are nutritionally diverse, some being ectomycorrhizal , others wood-rotting saprotrophs , others lichenized , and yet others lichenicolous (growing on or parasitizing lichens). CONTENTS* 1 Taxonomy * 1.1 History * 1.2 Current status * 2 Distribution and habitat * 3 References TAXONOMYHISTORYThe Dutch mycologist Marinus Anton Donk first published the tribe Clavulinae in 1933 to accommodate species of clavarioid fungi in the genus Clavulina that had "stichic" basidia (basidia with nuclear spindles arranged longitudinally)
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