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Canonization
Canonization
Canonization
is the act by which a Christian church declares that a person who has died was a saint, upon which declaration the person is included in the "canon", or list, of recognized saints. Originally, a person was recognized as a saint without any formal process. Later, different processes were developed, such as those used today in the Anglican Communion, the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the Oriental Orthodox Church.Contents1 Historical development 2 Anglican Communion 3 Catholic Church3.1 Nature 3.2 Procedure prior to reservation to the Apostolic See 3.3 Exclusive reservation to the Apostolic See 3.4 Procedure from 1734–38 to 1983 3.5 Since 1983 3.6 Equipollent canonization4 Eastern Orthodox Church 5 Oriental Orthodox Church 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External linksHistorical development[edit] The first persons honored as saints were the martyrs
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Carthage
Carthage
Carthage
(/ˈkɑːrθɪdʒ/, from Latin: Carthago; Phoenician: Qart-ḥadašt ("New city")) was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis
Tunis
in what is now the Tunis Governorate
Tunis Governorate
in Tunisia. The city developed from a Phoenician colony into the capital of an empire dominating the Mediterranean during the first millennium BC.[1] The legendary Queen Dido
Dido
is regarded as the founder of the city, though her historicity has been questioned. According to accounts by Timaeus of Tauromenium, she purchased from a local tribe the amount of land that could be covered by an oxhide
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Metropolitan Bishop
In Christian
Christian
churches with episcopal polity, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop of a metropolis (then more precisely called metropolitan archbishop); that is, the chief city of a historical Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital. Before the establishment of patriarchs (beginning in AD 325), metropolitan was the highest episcopal rank in the Eastern rites of the Church
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Donatism
Donatism
Donatism
(Latin: Donatismus, Greek: Δονατισμός Donatismós) was a schism in the Church of Carthage
Church of Carthage
from the fourth to the sixth centuries AD. Donatists argued that Christian clergy must be faultless for their ministry to be effective and their prayers and sacraments to be valid. Donatism
Donatism
had its roots in the long-established Christian community of the Roman Africa province (now Algeria
Algeria
and Tunisia) in the persecutions of Christians under Diocletian. Named after the Berber Christian bishop Donatus Magnus, Donatism
Donatism
flourished during the fourth and fifth centuries.[1] The Roman governor of North Africa, lenient to the large Christian minority under his rule throughout the persecutions, was satisfied when Christians handed over their scriptures as a token repudiation of faith
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Heresy
Heresy
Heresy
(/ˈhɛrəsi/) is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization
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Saint Optatus
Saint Optatus, sometimes anglicized as St. Optate, was Bishop of Milevis, in Numidia, in the fourth century, remembered for his writings against Donatism.Contents1 Biography and context 2 Doctrine 3 Literary appreciation 4 Veneration 5 SourcesBiography and context[edit] Optatus
Optatus
was a convert, as we gather from St. Augustine: "Do we not see with how great a booty of gold and silver and garments Cyprian, doctor suavissimus, came forth out of Egypt, and likewise Lactantius, Victorinus, Optatus, Hilary?" (De Doctrina Christ., xl). Optatus probably began as a pagan rhetorician. His (untitled) work against the Donatists
Donatists
is an answer to Parmenianus, the successor of Donatus in the primatial see of Carthage. St. Jerome (De viris illustribus, # 110) tells us it was in six books and was written under Valens and Valentinian (364-75)
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St. Cyprian Of Carthage
Cyprian (Latin: Thaschus Cæcilius Cyprianus; c. 200 – September 14, 258 AD)[1] was bishop of Carthage and a notable Early Christian writer of Berber descent,[3] many of whose Latin works are extant. He was born around the beginning of the 3rd century in North Africa, perhaps at Carthage,[4] where he received a classical education. Soon after converting to Christianity, he became a bishop in 249. A controversial figure during his lifetime, his strong pastoral skills, firm conduct during the Novatianist heresy and outbreak of the plague, and eventual martyrdom at Carthage vindicated his reputation and proved his sanctity in the eyes of the Church
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Relic
In religion, a relic usually consists of the physical remains of a saint or the personal effects of the saint or venerated person preserved for purposes of veneration as a tangible memorial. Relics are an important aspect of some forms of Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Shamanism, and many other religions. Relic
Relic
derives from the Latin
Latin
reliquiae, meaning "remains", and a form of the Latin verb relinquere, to "leave behind, or abandon"
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Cyprian
Cyprian
Cyprian
(Latin: Thaschus Cæcilius Cyprianus; c. 200 – September 14, 258 AD)[1] was bishop of Carthage
Carthage
and a notable Early Christian
Early Christian
writer of Berber descent,[3] many of whose Latin works are extant. He was born around the beginning of the 3rd century in North Africa, perhaps at Carthage,[4] where he received a classical education. Soon after converting to Christianity, he became a bishop in 249. A controversial figure during his lifetime, his strong pastoral skills, firm conduct during the Novatianist
Novatianist
heresy and outbreak of the plague, and eventual martyrdom at Carthage
Carthage
vindicated his reputation and proved his sanctity in the eyes of the Church
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Canon Law (Catholic Church)
Corpus Juris CanoniciDecretist Regulæ Juris Decretals of Gregory IXDecretalistDecretum Gratiani Extravagantes Liber SeptimusAncient Church OrdersDidache The Apostolic ConstitutionsCanons of the ApostlesCollections of ancient canonsCollectiones canonum Dionysianae Collectio canonum quadripartita Collectio canonum Quesnelliana Collectio canonum WigorniensisOtherPseudo-Isidorian Decretals Benedictus Deus (Pius IV) Contractum trinius Defect of Birth Jus exclusivae Papal
Papal
appointmentOriental lawCode of Canons of the Eastern Churches Eastern Cano
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Primate (bishop)
Primate (English: /ˈpraɪmət/) is a title or rank bestowed on some archbishops in certain Christian churches
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Liturgy
Liturgy
Liturgy
is the customary public worship performed by a religious group, according to its beliefs, customs and traditions. As a religious phenomenon, liturgy is a communal response to and participation in, the sacred through activity reflecting praise, thanksgiving, supplication or repentance. Ritualization may be associated with life events such as birth, coming of age, marriage, sex and death. It thus forms the basis for establishing a relationship with a divine agency, as well as with other participants in the liturgy. Methods of dress, preparation of food, application of cosmetics or other hygienic practices are all considered liturgical activities. Technically speaking, liturgy is a subset of ritual. When ritual is undertaken to participate in a divine act or assist a divine action, it is liturgy. If the ritual does not have this purpose it is not liturgy but only ritual
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Suffragan
A suffragan bishop is a bishop subordinate to a metropolitan bishop or diocesan bishop. They may be assigned to an area which does not have a cathedral of its own.Contents1 Anglican
Anglican
Communion1.1 England1.1.1 History 1.1.2 Today1.1.2.1 Area bishops 1.1.2.2 Suffragan bishops1.2 Wales 1.3 Ireland 1.4 United States 1.5 Acting bishops2 Roman Catholic Church 3 See also 4 References Anglican
Anglican
Communion[edit] In the Anglican
Anglican
churches, the term applies to a bishop who is an assistant to a diocesan bishop
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Altar
An altar is any structure upon which offerings such as sacrifices are made for religious purposes, and by extension the 'Holy table' of post-reformation Anglican
Anglican
churches. Altars are usually found at shrines, and they can be located in temples, churches and other places of worship. Today they are used particularly in Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, Shinto, Taoism. Also seen in Neopaganism
Neopaganism
and Ceremonial Magic. Judaism
Judaism
used such a structure until the destruction of the Second Temple
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Diocese
The word diocese (/ˈdaɪəsɪs, -siːs, -siːz/)[a] is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration". When now used in an ecclesiastical sense, it refers to an administrative territorial entity.[2] In the Western Church, the district is under the supervision of a bishop (who may have assistant bishops to help him or her) and is divided into parishes under the care of priests; but in the Eastern Church, the word denotes the area under the jurisdiction of a patriarch and the bishops under his jurisdiction administer parishes.[2] This structure of church governance is known as episcopal polity. The word diocesan means relating or pertaining to a diocese. It can also be used as a noun meaning the bishop who has the principal supervision of a diocese
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Ecclesiastical Province
An ecclesiastical province is a general term for one of the basic forms of jurisdiction in Christian
Christian
Churches with traditional hierarchical structure, including Western Christianity
Christianity
and Eastern Christianity. In general, ecclesiastical province is consisted of several dioceses (or eparchies), one of them being the archdiocese (or archeparchy), headed by metropolitan bishop or archbishop who has ecclesiastical jurisdiction over all other bishops of the province. In the Greco-Roman world, ecclesia (Greek ἐκκλησίᾱ, ekklēsiā ( Latin
Latin
ecclesia) meaning "congregation, church") was used to refer to a lawful assembly, or a called legislative body
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