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Canadian Citizenship
CANADIAN NATIONALITY LAW is promulgated by the Citizenship
Citizenship
Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. C-29) since 1977. The Act determines who is, or is eligible to be, a citizen of Canada
Canada
. The Act replaced the previous Canadian Citizenship
Citizenship
Act (S.C. 1946, c. 15) in 1977 and has gone through four significant amendments, in 2007, 2009, 2015 and 2017. Canadian citizenship is typically obtained by birth in Canada
Canada
on the principle of jus soli , or birth abroad when at least one parent is a Canadian citizen
Canadian citizen
or by adoption by at least one Canadian citizen
Canadian citizen
under the rules of jus sanguinis . It can also be granted to a permanent resident who has lived in Canada
Canada
for a period of time through naturalization
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British Subject
The term BRITISH SUBJECT has had a number of different legal meanings over time. Formerly 'British subject' was used to denote de facto citizenship of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the British Empire
British Empire
, and until 1949 was used to refer generally to any person born or naturalised in the United Kingdom or the British Empire, including the independent dominions such as Canada
Canada
and Australia
Australia
(but not including protectorates , e.g., the Princely States ). The term had a more complex interpretation between 1949 and 1983 and the move to independence of many of the colonies, with subject status existing alongside citizenship of an individual country or colony. Currently the term 'British subject' refers, in British nationality law , to a limited class of people defined by Part IV of the British Nationality Act 1981
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Dominion
DOMINIONS were semi-independent polities under the British Crown , constituting the British Empire , beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867. They included Canada , Australia , New Zealand , Newfoundland , South Africa , and the Irish Free State , and then from the late 1940s also India , Pakistan , and Ceylon (now Sri Lanka ). The Balfour Declaration of 1926 recognised the Dominions as "autonomous Communities within the British Empire", and the 1931 Statute of Westminster confirmed their full legislative independence. Earlier usage of dominion to refer to a particular territory dates to the 16th century and was used to describe Wales from 1535 to 1801 and New England between 1686 and 1689
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British North America Act, 1867
The CONSTITUTION ACT, 1867 (originally enacted as THE BRITISH NORTH AMERICA ACT, 1867, and referred to as the BNA ACT), is a major part of Canada's Constitution . The Act created a federal dominion and defines much of the operation of the Government of Canada
Government of Canada
, including its federal structure , the House of Commons , the Senate , the justice system, and the taxation system. The British North America Acts , including this Act, were renamed in 1982 with the patriation of the Constitution (originally enacted by the British Parliament ); however, it is still known by its original name in United Kingdom records. Amendments were also made at this time: section 92A was added, giving provinces greater control over non-renewable natural resources
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Constitution Act, 1867
The CONSTITUTION ACT, 1867
1867
(originally enacted as THE BRITISH NORTH AMERICA ACT, 1867, and referred to as the BNA ACT), is a major part of Canada
Canada
's Constitution . The Act created a federal dominion and defines much of the operation of the Government of Canada
Canada
, including its federal structure , the House of Commons , the Senate , the justice system, and the taxation system. The British North America Acts , including this Act, were renamed in 1982 with the patriation of the Constitution (originally enacted by the British Parliament ); however, it is still known by its original name in United Kingdom records. Amendments were also made at this time: section 92A was added, giving provinces greater control over non-renewable natural resources
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Commonwealth Citizen
In general, a COMMONWEALTH CITIZEN is a person who has that status under British nationality law
British nationality law
and may enjoy some privileges in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and less commonly, other Commonwealth countries . Each country can determine what special rights, if any, are accorded to non-nationals who are Commonwealth citizens. The term is largely confined to British nationality law
British nationality law
and is not used in many other Commonwealth countries such as Australia
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Population Of Canada By Year
The historical growth of Canada\'s population is complex and has been influenced in many different ways, such as indigenous populations, expansion of territory, and human migration. Being a new world country, Canada
Canada
has been predisposed to be a very open society with regards to immigration , which has been the most important factor in its historical population growth. Canadians
Canadians
comprise about 0.5% of the world's total population, with an estimated population of 36,443,632 by the Q4 of 2016. The 2016 Canadian census counted a total population of 35,151,728, an increase of around 5.0 percent over the 2011 figure. Between 1990 and 2008, the population increased by 5.6 million, equivalent to 20.4 percent overall growth
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Canadian Confederation
CANADIAN CONFEDERATION (French : Confédération canadienne) was the process by which the British colonies of Canada
Canada
, Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
, and New Brunswick
New Brunswick
were united into one Dominion
Dominion
of Canada
Canada
on July 1, 1867. Upon confederation, the old province of Canada
Canada
was divided into Ontario
Ontario
and Quebec
Quebec
; along with Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
and New Brunswick, the new federation thus comprised four provinces. Over the years since Confederation, Canada
Canada
has seen numerous territorial changes and expansions, resulting in the current union of ten provinces and three territories
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Supreme Court Of Canada
45°25'19.00"N 75°42'20.00"W COMPOSITION METHOD Judicial appointments in Canada AUTHORIZED BY Constitution Act, 1867 and Supreme Court Act JUDGE TERM LENGTH Mandatory retirement at age 75 NO
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42nd Canadian Parliament
The 42ND CANADIAN PARLIAMENT is the current Parliament of Canada , with the membership of its Lower House, the House of Commons of Canada , having been determined by the results of the 2015 federal election held on October 19, 2015, and with at least seven new appointees to its Upper House, the Senate of Canada , on the Constitutional advice of Prime Minister Justin Trudeau to Governor General David Johnston . Parliament officially resumed on December 3, 2015 with the election of a new Speaker , Geoff Regan , followed by a Speech from the Throne the following day. The current Speaker of the Senate of Canada is George Furey , who was appointed Speaker of the Canadian Senate on the Constitutional advice of Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, to replace Leo Housakos , on December 3, 2015
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Jus Soli
JUS SOLI (English: /dʒʌs ˈsoʊlaɪ/ ; Latin pronunciation: ), meaning "right of the soil", commonly referred to as BIRTHRIGHT CITIZENSHIP, is the right of anyone born in the territory of a state to nationality or citizenship . As an unconditional basis for citizenship, it is the predominant rule in the Americas, but is rare elsewhere. Since the Twenty-seventh Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland was enacted in 2004, no European country grants citizenship based on unconditional jus soli. A study in 2010 found that only 30 of the world's 194 countries grant citizenship at birth to the children of undocumented foreign residents, although definitive information was not available from 19 countries
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Canada
Coordinates : 60°N 95°W / 60°N 95°W / 60; -95 CANADA Flag MOTTO: A Mari Usque Ad Mare (Latin ) (English: "From Sea to Sea") ANTHEM: " O Canada
O Canada
"------------------------- ROYAL ANTHEM : " God Save the Queen
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Ottawa
OTTAWA (/ˈɒtəwə/ ( listen ) or /-wɑː/ ; French pronunciation: ​ ) is the capital city of Canada
Canada
. It stands on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of southern Ontario
Ontario
. Ottawa borders Gatineau
Gatineau
, Quebec
Quebec
; the two form the core of the Ottawa– Gatineau
Gatineau
census metropolitan area (CMA) and the National Capital Region (NCR). As of 2016 Ottawa
Ottawa
had a city population of 934,243 and a metropolitan population of 1,323,783 making it the fourth-largest city and the fifth-largest CMA in Canada. Founded in 1826 as Bytown
Bytown
, and incorporated as "Ottawa" in 1855, the city has evolved into the political and technological centre of Canada
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Parliament Of Canada
Initially assumed some jurisdiction from: * Parliament of the Province of Canada * General Assembly of Nova Scotia * New Brunswick Legislature Later added some jurisdiction from: * Hudson\'s Bay Company * Legislature
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Patriation
PATRIATION was the political process that led to full Canadian sovereignty , culminating with the Constitution Act, 1982 . That Act was necessary because after the Statute of Westminster, 1931 , Canada decided to allow the British parliament temporarily to retain the power to amend Canada's constitution with the consent of the Canadian government . That authority was removed from the UK by the passing of the Canada
Canada
Act, 1982 on March 29, 1982, by the Parliament of the United Kingdom , as requested by the Parliament of Canada
Canada
. Patriation
Patriation
was subsequently confirmed by Canada's Constitution Act, 1982 which was signed by then Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau and by Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
as Queen of Canada
Canada
on April 17, 1982 on Parliament Hill in Ottawa
Ottawa

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Seal (emblem)
A SEAL is a device for making an impression in wax , clay, paper, or some other medium, including an embossment on paper, and is also the impression thus made. The original purpose was to authenticate a document, a wrapper for one such as a modern envelope, or the cover of a container or package holding valuables or other objects. The seal-making device is also referred to as the seal matrix or die; the imprint it creates as the SEAL IMPRESSION (or, more rarely, the sealing). If the impression is made purely as a relief resulting from the greater pressure on the paper where the high parts of the matrix touch, the seal is known as a dry seal; in other cases ink or another liquid or liquefied medium is used, in another color than the paper. In most traditional forms of dry seal the design on the seal matrix is in intaglio (cut below the flat surface) and therefore the design on the impressions made is in relief (raised above the surface)
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