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Campaspe Plains Massacre
CAMPASPE PLAINS MASSACRE, occurred in 1839 in Central Victoria, Australia as a reprisal raid against Aboriginal resistance to the invasion and occupation of the Dja Dja Wurrung and Daung Wurrung lands. Charles Hutton took over the Campaspe run, located near the border of Dja Dja Wurrung and Daung Wurrung, in 1838 following sporadic confrontations. CONTENTS * 1 Cause * 2 The Massacre
Massacre
* 3 See also * 4 References CAUSEIn April 1839 five Aborigines were killed by three white men. In response Hugh Bryan, a shepherd, and James Neill, a hut keeper were killed in May 1839 by Aborigines identified as Daung Wurrung , who had robbed a hut of bedding, clothes, guns and ammunition and also ran a flock of 700 sheep off the property, possibly as retribution for the earlier Aboriginal deaths. The Daung Wurrung were enemies of the Dja Dja Wurrung
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International Standard Serial Number
An INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER (ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication . The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type , a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media . The ISSN system refers to these types as PRINT ISSN (P-ISSN) and ELECTRONIC ISSN (E-ISSN), respectively
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Tedbury's War
TEDBURY (c.1780, Botany Bay-1810, Parramatta) (also "Tidbury", "Tjedboro") was an Aboriginal Australian involved in frequent acts of resistance to British colonists in the early years of New South Wales . He was son of noted warrior and resistance fighter Pemulwuy . Tedbury was captured in 1805 and tried before the magistrate at Parramatta, Reverend Samuel Marsden . :155 He was released at the behest of Aboriginal Australians who had participated in the capture of Musquito . Tedbury was an ally of John Macarthur and a frequent visitor to Elizabeth Farm . When Governor Bligh
Governor Bligh
placed Macarthur under arrest in 1808, Tedbury offered to spear the governor. He also took part in a robbery of a traveller named Tunks on Parramatta Road in 1809
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Massacre
A MASSACRE is a specific incident which involves the killing of people, although it is not necessarily a crime against humanity . The numbers killed range from just a few people to many millions. The common factor of a massacre (as with mass murder ) is that multiple people are being violently killed by other people
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Kalkadoon Wars
THE KALKADOON WARS were a series of encounters between European colonists and the Kalkadoon people of Australia. Europeans started settling in the Kalkadoon's homelands around 1860. At first relations were peaceful but as numbers of new settlers increased, things became more hostile and the Kalkadoons eventually resorted to guerrilla war. BATTLE MOUNTAINIn 1884 the Kalkadoons killed five native police and a prominent pastoralist. The Queensland
Queensland
government sent in heavily armed police and ended up fighting the Kalkadoon at Battle Mountain. The Europeans were ultimately victorious
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Eumerella Wars
THE EUMERELLA WARS were the violent encounters between European settlers and aboriginal Australians in south west Victoria. Rolf Boldrewood wrote a chapter about the war in his book Old Melbourne Memories (1896). The remains of people involved in the conflict are at the Deen Maar Indigenous Protected Area
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Mowla Bluff Massacre
The MOWLA BLUFF MASSACRE was an incident involving the murder of a number of Indigenous Australians at Geegully Creek, near Mowla Bluff, in the Kimberley region of Western Australia in 1916. Mowla Bluff is a cattle station 140 kilometres (87 mi) south of Derby and 75 kilometres (47 mi) southwest of Jarlmadangah . Responding to the brutality of the white station manager, some local men gave him a beating. In reprisal, an armed mob which included officials and residents rounded up a large number of Aboriginal men, women and children who were then shot. The bodies were burned. One account states that three or four hundred people were killed and only three survived
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Flying Foam Massacre
The FLYING FOAM MASSACRE was a series of confrontations between white settlers and Aboriginal people around Flying Foam Passage on Murujuga Burrup Peninsula, Western Australia . The confrontations occurred between February and May 1868 triggered by the killings of two police officers and a local workman. The confrontations resulted in the deaths of unknown number of Jaburara (or Yaburrara, Yapurarra) people with estimates ranging between 15 and 150 dead. The confrontations followed the killings on 7 February, on the south west shore of Nickol Bay , of Police Constable William Griffis, an Aboriginal police assistant named Peter, and a pearling worker named George Breem, by some Jaburara people. along with the disappearance of a pearling lugger captain, Henry Jermyn. Three Jaburara were arrested and convicted of Griffis' murder. Sentenced to death their sentences were commuted to twelve years' penal servitude on Rottnest Island
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Darkey Flat Massacre
THE DARKEY FLAT MASSACRE is a massacre of Aboriginal Australians by European settlers that supposedly took place some time between 1845 and 1853. There is no eyewitness, first-hand, or clear documentary evidence relating to the massacre and there is some doubt as to whether it actually occurred
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Rufus River Massacre
THE RUFUS RIVER MASSACRE was a massacre of Aboriginals that took place in 1841 along the Rufus River near Wentworth , Australia. It was the result of six months of guerrilla warfare by the local Aboriginal people, who blocked an overlander route through their land. The cause of much of the trouble with the Aboriginal groups was the Europeans engaging in sexual relations with the women without giving the food and clothing promised first. In partial response, the Aboriginal groups stole some European sheep. The attack on the Aborigines was led by Matthew Moorhouse , Protector of Aborigines . Thirty to 40 Aborigines were killed
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Forrest River Massacre
The FORREST RIVER MASSACRE, or OOMBULGURRI MASSACRE of June 1926, was a massacre of Indigenous Australian people by a group of law enforcement personnel and civilians in the wake of the killing of a pastoralist in the Kimberley region of Western Australia . An initial police enquiry concluded that sixteen Aboriginals were killed and their remains burnt. Subsequently, a Royal Commission was organised in 1927 to further investigate the matter. This Commission found that twenty Aboriginals were murdered and burnt at several different locations. Two Western Australian police constables who participated in the punitive expedition that led to the massacre, James St Jack and Dennis Regan, were charged with murder and arrested. Despite the findings of the Commission and police investigation, the case never went to trial, with a preliminary hearing concluding that a jury would not be able to make a conviction
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Battle Of One Tree Hill
THE BATTLE OF ONE TREE HILL was the best known of a series of conflicts that took place between European settlers and aboriginal inhabitants of the Darling Downs in the 1840s. In September 1843 aboriginal leader Multuggera led an ambush of squatters taking supplies across from Moreton Bay , at One Tree Hill (now known as Tabletop Mountain), near Toowoomba . The squatters organised a revenge party and the aborigines retreated up the mountain. They escaped into the Lockyer Valley but were later tracked down and killed by the military. A monument recording the battle was established in 2005. An indigenous land use agreement has been signed over the site. In 2010 the National Library of Australia acquired a sketch by local Thomas John Domville Taylor for $120,000 which is believed to be an eyewitness account of the aftermath of the battle. This made it one of less than ten visual eyewitness accounts of attacks by European settlers on indigenous people
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Cullin-la-ringo Massacre
The CULLIN-LA-RINGO MASSACRE or WILLS TRAGEDY occurred north of modern-day Springsure in Central Queensland on 17 October 1861. It remains the largest massacre of white settlers by Aborigines in Australian history, and a pivotal moment in the frontier wars in Queensland . CONTENTS * 1 Massacre * 2 Response * 3 Further reading * 4 See also * 5 Footnotes * 6 References * 7 External links MASSACREIn mid October 1861, a squatter party from the colony of Victoria under Horatio Wills began a temporary tent camp to start the process of setting up the grazing property of Cullin-la-ringo. Wills's party, an enormous settlement train including bullock wagons and more than 10,000 sheep, had set out from Brisbane
Brisbane
eight months earlier to set up a farm at Cullin-la-ringo, a property formed by amalgamating four blocks of land with a total area of 260 square kilometres (64,000 acres)
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Victorian Aborigines
The INDIGENOUS AUSTRALIANS of Victoria , Australia
Australia
occupied the land for tens of thousands of years prior to European settlement . According to Gary Presland Aboriginal people have lived in Victoria for about 40,000 years living a semi-nomadic existence of fishing, hunting and gathering, and farming eels. The Aboriginal people of Victoria had developed a varied and complex set of languages, tribal alliances and trading routes, beliefs and social customs that involved totemism, superstition, initiation and burial rites, and tribal moieties that regulated sexual relationships and marriage. CONTENTS * 1 Prehistory * 2 Victorian Aboriginal Languages * 3 Notes * 4 References PREHISTORYThere is some evidence to show that people were living in the Maribyrnong River valley, near present day Keilor , about 40,000 years ago, according to Gary Presland
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