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Cammachmore
Cammachmore (Gaelic An Camach Mòr) is a hamlet in the coastal region near the North Sea
North Sea
in Aberdeenshire.[1] It lies slightly west of the A90 road
A90 road
and the ancient Causey Mounth
Causey Mounth
passes through the community. Historic
Historic
Elsick House
Elsick House
is situated due west of Cammachmore. Other nearby historic features include Gillybrands, Saint Ternan's Church, Muchalls Castle
Muchalls Castle
and the Lairhillock Inn. History[edit] Cammachmore is situated along the ancient Causey Mounth
Causey Mounth
trackway, which was constructed on high ground to make this medieval route the only available, passable route from the coastal points south from Stonehaven
Stonehaven
to Aberdeen
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Scottish Gaelic Language
Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig [ˈkaːlikʲ] ( listen)) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels
Gaels
of Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish. Most of modern Scotland was once Gaelic-speaking, as evidenced especially by Gaelic-language placenames.[3] In the 2011 census of Scotland, 57,375 people (1.1% of the Scottish population aged over three years old) reported as able to speak Gaelic, 1,275 fewer than in 2001
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Aberdeen
Aberdeen
Aberdeen
(/æbərˈdiːn/ ( listen); Scots: Aiberdeen,  listen (help·info); Scottish Gaelic: Obar Dheathain [ˈopər ˈʝɛ.ɛɲ]; Latin: Aberdonia) is Scotland's third most populous city, one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas and the United Kingdom's 37th most populous built-up area, with an official population estimate of 196,670 for the city of Aberdeen[1] and 229,800 for the local authority area.[2] Nicknames include the Granite
Granite
City, the Grey City
City
and the Silver City with the Golden Sands
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Gourdon, Aberdeenshire
Aberdeenshire
Aberdeenshire
(Scottish Gaelic: Siorrachd Obar Dheathain) is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. It takes its name from the old County of Aberdeen
Aberdeen
which had substantially different boundaries. Modern Aberdeenshire
Aberdeenshire
includes all of what was once Kincardineshire, as well as part of Banffshire. The old boundaries are still officially used for a few purposes, namely land registration and lieutenancy.[1] Aberdeenshire
Aberdeenshire
Council is headquartered at Woodhill House, in Aberdeen, making it the only Scottish council whose headquarters are located outside its jurisdiction. Aberdeen
Aberdeen
itself forms a different council area ( Aberdeen
Aberdeen
City)
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Burn Of Elsick
The Burn of Elsick is a coastal stream in Aberdeenshire, Scotland that discharges to the North Sea.[1] This watercourse drains primarily agricultural lands and enters the North Sea at Newtonhill. History[edit] The Burn of Elsick flows under the Causey Mounth, an ancient drovers road dating from circa 1100 AD,[2] which track is extant as a hiking footpath. The Causey Mounth road, built on high ground to make passable this only available medieval route from coastal points south to Aberdeen. This medieval land passage specifically connected the crossing of the River Dee (where the present Bridge of Dee is located) via Portlethen Moss, Muchalls Castle and Stonehaven to the south.[2] The route was that taken by William Keith, 7th Earl Marischal and the Marquess of Montrose when they led a Covenanter army of 9000 men in the first battle of the Civil War in 1639.[2][3] In the watershed is an historic home, Elsick House, owned by the Duke of Fife
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Forge
A forge is a type of hearth used for heating metals, or the workplace (smithy) where such a hearth is located. The forge is used by the smith to heat a piece of metal to a temperature where it becomes easier to shape by forging, or to the point where work hardening no longer occurs. The metal (known as the "workpiece") is transported to and from the forge using tongs, which are also used to hold the workpiece on the smithy's anvil while the smith works it with a hammer. Sometimes, such as when hardening steel or cooling the work so that it may be handled with bare hands, the workpiece is transported to the slack tub, which rapidly cools the workpiece in a large body of water. However, depending on the metal type, it may require an oil quench or a salt brine instead; many metals require more than plain water hardening
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Industry
Industry
Industry
is the production of goods or related services within an economy.[1] The major source of revenue of a group or company is the indicator of its relevant industry.[2] When a large group has multiple sources of revenue generation, it is considered to be working in different industries. Manufacturing
Manufacturing
industry became a key sector of production and labour in European and North American countries during the Industrial Revolution, upsetting previous mercantile and feudal economies
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Hamlet (place)
A hamlet is a small human settlement. In different jurisdictions and geographies, hamlets may be the size of a town, village or parish, be considered a smaller settlement or subdivision of a larger, or be treated as a satellite entity to a larger settlement. The word and concept of a hamlet have roots in the Anglo-Norman settlement of England, where the old French hamlet came to apply to small human settlements. In British geography, a hamlet is considered smaller than a village and distinctly without a church.Contents1 Etymology 2 Australia 3 Canada 4 France 5 Germany 6 India 7 Indonesia 8 Pakistan 9 Romania 10 Switzerland 11 Ukraine 12 United Kingdom 13 United States13.1 Mississippi 13.2 New York 13.3 Oregon14 Vietnam 15 See also 16 References 17 External linksEtymology[edit] The word comes from Anglo-Norman hamelet(t)e, corresponding to Old French hamelet, the diminutive of Old French
Old French
hamel
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Battle
A battle is a combat in warfare between two or more armed forces, or combatants. A war sometimes consists of many battles. Battles generally are well defined in duration, area, and force commitment.[1] A battle with only limited engagement between the forces and without decisive results is sometimes called a skirmish. Wars and military campaigns are guided by strategy, whereas battles take place on a level of planning and execution known as operational mobility.[2] German strategist Carl von Clausewitz
Carl von Clausewitz
stated that "the employment of battles ..
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Army
An army (from Latin
Latin
arma "arms, weapons" via Old French
Old French
armée, "armed" (feminine)) or ground force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the broadest sense, it is the land-based military branch, service branch or armed service of a nation or state. It may also include aviation assets by possessing an army aviation component. In certain nations, the term army refers to the entire armed forces of a nation (e.g., People's Liberation Army). Within a national military force, the word army may also mean a field army. They differ from army reserves who are activated only during such times as war or natural disasters. In several countries, the army is officially called the Land Army
Army
to differentiate it from an air force called the Air Army, notably France. In such countries, the word "army" on its own retains its connotation of a land force in common usage
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Covenanter
The Covenanters were a Scottish Presbyterian
Presbyterian
movement that played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent that of England and Ireland, during the 17th century. Presbyterian denominations tracing their history to the Covenanters and often incorporating the name continue the ideas and traditions in Scotland and internationally. They derived their name from the word covenant meaning a band, legal document or agreement, with particular reference to the Covenant between God and the Israelites in the Old Testament
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Marquess Of Montrose
The title of Duke of Montrose
Duke of Montrose
(named after Montrose, Angus) has been twice in the Peerage of Scotland, firstly in 1488 for David Lindsay, 5th Earl of Crawford. It was forfeited and then returned, but only for the period of the holder's lifetime. Thus, it was not inherited. The title was bestowed anew in 1707, again in the Peerage of Scotland, on the fourth Marquess of Montrose, and has since been in the Graham family. The title is also tied as the chieftainship of Clan Graham. The Duke's subsidiary titles are: Marquess of Montrose (created 1644), Marquess of Graham
Marquess of Graham
and Buchanan (1707), Earl of Montrose (1503), Earl of Kincardine (1644 & 1707), Earl Graham of Belford (1722), Viscount Dundaff (1707), Lord Graham (1445),[2] Lord Aberruthven, Mugdock and Fintrie (1707) and Baron Graham of Belford (1722)
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William Keith, 7th Earl Marischal
William Keith, 7th Earl Marischal (1610 – 1670 or 1671) was a Scottish nobleman[1] and Covenanter. He was the eldest son of William Keith, 6th Earl Marischal. He joined Montrose and twice seized Aberdeen
Aberdeen
in 1639, including a march with Montrose and 9000 men along the Causey Mounth
Causey Mounth
past Muchalls Castle[2] and through the Portlethen Moss to attack via the Bridge of Dee. He was appointed a Lord of the Articles
Lord of the Articles
after the pacification of Berwick-upon-Tweed, and again seized Aberdeen
Aberdeen
and enforced signatures of the covenant in 1640. The 7th Earl Marischal was appointed a Privy Councillor in 1641. He attended covenanting committees in the north but remained inactive in 1643-4
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Bridge Of Dee
The Bridge of Dee
Bridge of Dee
or Brig o' Dee is a road bridge over the River Dee in Aberdeen, Scotland. The term is also used for the surrounding area of the city. Dating from 1527,[1] the bridge crosses at what was once the City of Aberdeen's southern boundary. This was the site of a battle in 1639 between the Royalists under Viscount Aboyne and the Covenanters who were led by the Marquess of Montrose
Marquess of Montrose
and Earl Marischal. This was the only substantial action of the First Bishops' War, ironically it took place after the peace treaty had already been signed. The Bridge of Dee
Bridge of Dee
is approximately 32 feet (10 m) above typical water height and consists of seven nearly semicircular ribbed arches, built using granite and Elgin sandstone
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River Dee, Aberdeenshire
The River
River
Dee (Scottish Gaelic: Uisge Dhè) is a river in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. It rises in the Cairngorms
Cairngorms
and flows through southern Aberdeenshire
Aberdeenshire
to reach the North Sea
North Sea
at Aberdeen
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English Civil War
Parliamentarian victoryExecution of King Charles I Exile of Charles II Establishment of the republican Commonwealth under Oliver CromwellBelligerentsEnglish, Scottish, Welsh and Irish Royalists English, Scottish, Welsh and Irish ParliamentariansCommanders and leadersKing Charles I   Prince Rupert
Prince Rupert
of the Rhine Charles IIEarl of Essex Thomas Fairfax Oliver CromwellCasualties and losses50,000[1] 34,000[1]127,000 noncombat deaths (including some 40,000 civilians)[a]v t eEnglish Civil WarFirst Second ThirdThe English Civil War
English Civil War
(1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's government
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