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Camille Tissot
CAMILLE PAPIN TISSOT (15 October 1868 in Brest, France
Brest, France
– 2 October 1917 in Arcachon
Arcachon
), was a French naval officer and pioneer of wireless telegraphy who established the first French operational radio connections at sea. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Work * 3 Publications * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links * 7 Further reading LIFECamille Papin Tissot was the second child of Pierre Tissot and Adeline Alexandrine Gérardin, born on 15 October 1868. Their third child, Esther Adèle Tissot, was born on 1 April 1872. The two surviving children, Camille and Esther, were primarily raised by their mother, as their father was often at sea. Recommended by his father, Camille Tissot
Camille Tissot
entered the naval college at Brest in 1884 when he was 16 years old. He studied navigation on the school ship Le Borda until 1886, and was then posted to the port of Brest
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Officer Of The Legion Of Honor
The LEGION OF HONOUR, full name NATIONAL ORDER OF THE LEGION OF HONOUR (French : Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte . The order is divided into five degrees of increasing distinction: Chevalier (Knight ), Officier (Officer), Commandeur (Commander ), Grand Officier (Grand Officer) and Grand-Croix (Grand Cross ). The order's motto is "Honneur et Patrie" ("Honour and Motherland") and its seat is the Palais de la Légion d\'Honneur next to the Musée d\'Orsay , on the left bank of the River Seine in Paris
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Édouard Branly
ÉDOUARD EUGèNE DéSIRé BRANLY (23 October 1844 – 24 March 1940) was a French inventor, physicist and professor at the Institut Catholique de Paris . He is primarily known for his early involvement in wireless telegraphy and his invention of the Branly coherer around 1890. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Coherer
Coherer
* 3 Honours * 4 Legacy * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links and resources BIOGRAPHYHe was born on 23 October 1844. Édouard Branly
Édouard Branly
died in 1940. His funeral was at the Notre Dame cathedral in Paris and was attended by the President of France
President of France
, Albert Lebrun . He was interred in Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris
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Brest, France
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. BREST (French pronunciation: ( listen ); Breton pronunciation: ) is a city in the Finistère
Finistère
département in Brittany
Brittany
. Located in a sheltered position not far from the western tip of the peninsula, and the western extremity of metropolitan France
France
, Brest is an important harbor and the second French military port after Toulon
Toulon
. The city is located on the western edge of continental Europe
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Bureau Des Longitudes
The BUREAU DES LONGITUDES (French pronunciation: ​ ) is a French scientific institution, founded by decree of 25 June 1795 and charged with the improvement of nautical navigation , standardisation of time -keeping, geodesy and astronomical observation. During the 19th century, it was responsible for synchronizing clocks across the world. It was headed during this time by François Arago
François Arago
and Henri Poincaré . The Bureau now functions as an academy and still meets monthly to discuss topics related to astronomy . The Bureau was founded by the National Convention
National Convention
after it heard a report drawn up jointly by the Committee of Navy, the Committee of Finances and the Committee of State education
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Passenger Ship
A PASSENGER SHIP is a merchant ship whose primary function is to carry passengers on the sea. The category does not include cargo vessels which have accommodations for limited numbers of passengers, such as the ubiquitous twelve-passenger freighters once common on the seas in which the transport of passengers is secondary to the carriage of freight. The type does however include many classes of ships designed to transport substantial numbers of passengers as well as freight. Indeed, until recently virtually all ocean liners were able to transport mail, package freight and express, and other cargo in addition to passenger luggage, and were equipped with cargo holds and derricks, kingposts, or other cargo-handling gear for that purpose. Only in more recent ocean liners and in virtually all cruise ships has this cargo capacity been eliminated
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Chronometer Watch
The term CHRONOMETER (From Greek: Χρονόμετρο) is a specific type of timepiece tested and certified to meet certain precision standards. In Switzerland , only timepieces certified by the Contrôle Officiel Suisse des Chronomètres (COSC) may use the word 'Chronometer' on them. Outside Switzerland, equivalent bodies (such as the Japan Chronometer Inspection Institute) have in the past certified timepieces to the same internationally recognised standards, although use of the term has not always been strictly controlled. The term chronometer was coined by Jeremy Thacker of Beverley , England in 1714, referring to his invention of a clock ensconced in a vacuum chamber. The term chronometer is also used to describe a marine chronometer used for celestial navigation and determination of longitude. The marine chronometer was invented by John Harrison in 1730. This was the first of a series of chronometers that enabled accurate marine navigation
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Cat's Whisker Detector
A CRYSTAL DETECTOR is an electronic component used to rectify radio frequency alternating current . The "asymmetric conduction" of crystals was discovered in 1874 by Karl Ferdinand Braun , and the first crystal detectors were used to receive radio waves by Braun and Jagadish Chandra Bose in 1894, and improved around 1904 by radio researchers such as Henry H. C. Dunwoody and G. W. Pickard , this device was used as the detector in early crystal radios , from the early twentieth century through World War II , and gave this type of radio receiver its name. Crystal radios were the most popular type of radio until the mid 1920s. The crystal detector was the first type of semiconductor diode , and in fact, one of the first semiconductor electronic devices (after photoconductors )
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Foster-Seeley Discriminator
The FOSTER–SEELEY DISCRIMINATOR is a common type of FM detector circuit , invented in 1936 by Dudley E. Foster and Stuart William Seeley . The circuit was envisioned for automatic frequency control of receivers, but also found application in demodulating an FM signal. It uses a tuned RF transformer to convert frequency changes into amplitude changes. A transformer, tuned to the carrier frequency , is connected to two rectifier diodes . The circuit resembles a full-wave bridge rectifier . If the input equals the carrier frequency, the two halves of the tuned transformer circuit produce the same rectified voltage and the output is zero. As the frequency of the input changes, the balance between the two halves of the transformer secondary changes, and the result is a voltage proportional to the frequency deviation of the carrier. Foster–Seeley discriminators are sensitive to both frequency and amplitude variations, unlike some detectors
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Wunderlich (vacuum Tube)
WUNDERLICH refers to a series of vacuum tubes introduced in the early 1930s. Wunderlichs were designed to be used as full-wave detectors in AM radio receivers. However, because of their unusual design, they were rarely used in commercially manufactured receivers. The tube is named for its inventor, Norman Wunderlich. STRUCTUREThe Wunderlich tube is a twin medium-mu triode . The tube has two identical control grids that operate in tandem with a common heater, indirectly heated cathode and plate. FUNCTIONTypically, the two grids are connected to opposite ends of the center-tapped secondary of the final IF transformer. The center tap of the secondary is then connected to ground through a parallel-connected resistor and capacitor circuit. This causes the tube to act as a full-wave grid leak detector. In some circuits, the center tap also provides AVC bias voltage to the converter and/or IF amplifier
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International Standard Serial Number
An INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER (ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication . The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type , a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media . The ISSN system refers to these types as PRINT ISSN (P-ISSN) and ELECTRONIC ISSN (E-ISSN), respectively
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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Plate Detector (radio)
In electronics, a PLATE DETECTOR (ANODE BEND DETECTOR, GRID BIAS DETECTOR) is a vacuum tube circuit in which an amplifying tube having a control grid is operated in a non-linear region of its grid voltage versus plate current transfer characteristic near plate current cutoff in order to demodulate an amplitude modulated carrier signal . This differs from the grid leak detector , which utilizes non-linearity of the grid voltage versus grid current characteristic for demodulation. It also differs from the diode detector, which is a two terminal device. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Operation * 2.1 Controlling volume level * 2.2 Tubes commonly used as plate detectors * 3 Comparison with Alternative Envelope Detectors * 3.1 Infinite-Impedance Detector * 3.2 Summary of Differences * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYPlate detector circuits were commonly used from the 1920s until the start of World War II
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Magnetic Detector
The MAGNETIC DETECTOR or MARCONI MAGNETIC DETECTOR, sometimes called the "Maggie", was an early radio wave detector used in some of the first radio receivers to receive Morse code messages during the wireless telegraphy era around the turn of the 20th century. Developed in 1902 by radio pioneer Guglielmo Marconi from a method invented in 1895 by New Zealand physicist Ernest Rutherford it was used in Marconi wireless stations until around 1912, when it was superseded by vacuum tubes . It was widely used on ships because of its reliability and insensitivity to vibration. A magnetic detector was part of the wireless apparatus in the radio room of the RMS Titanic which was used to summon help during its famous 15 April 1912 sinking
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Grid-leak Detector
A GRID LEAK DETECTOR is an electronic circuit that demodulates an amplitude modulated alternating current and amplifies the recovered modulating voltage. The circuit utilizes the non-linear cathode to control grid conduction characteristic and the amplification factor of a vacuum tube. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Functional overview * 3 Operation * 4 Advantages * 5 Disadvantages * 6 See also * 7 References HISTORY A TRF receiver using a grid leak detector (V1). First use of a resistance to discharge the grid condenser in a vacuum tube detector circuit may have been by Sewall Cabot in 1906. Cabot wrote that he made a pencil mark to discharge the grid condenser, after finding that touching the grid terminal of the tube would cause the detector to resume operation after having stopped.
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